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Table 1 Preferences for dying at home: quantity, quality, consistency and strength

From: Heterogeneity and changes in preferences for dying at home: a systematic review

Population group and studies High strength evidence (only high quality studies) Moderate evidence (high and medium quality studies)
Population group Number of studies Number of participants Consistencya Preference for dying at home High strength? Preference for dying at home Moderate strength?
Evidence for >50% preference for dying at home
All people 130 6463 64% (9/14) >50% no >50% yes
Patients 92 1400 60% (6/10) >50% no >50% yes
Caregivers 36 836 60% (3/5) >50% no >50% yes
General public 26 4227 75% (3/4) >50% yes n/a n/a
Health professionals and students 7 0 0% (0/0) >50% no >50% yes
Older people 9 0 0% (0/0) >50% no >50% no
Evidence for >70% preferences for dying at home (or <70% )
All people 130 6463 29% (4/14) >70% no <70% no
Patients 92 1400 50% (5/10) >70% no <70% no
Caregivers 36 836 80% (4/5) <70% yes n/a n/a
General public 26 4227 75% (3/4) <70% yes n/a n/a
Health professionals and students 7 0 0% (0/0) >70% no >70% yes
Older people 9 0 0% (0/0) >70% no >70% no
  1. Footnote: The table shows the total number of studies that reported a >50% and a >70% (or <70%) preference for dying at home amongst all types of participants and within each of five population groups. It then shows whether there is high strength evidence amongst all people and within each population group. High strength evidence was measured amongst only high quality studies and it was present, according to our grading system, if ≥70% of studies reported similar findings (e.g. there was no high strength evidence that >50% of all people preferred dying at home because the consistency was 64%, i.e. nine out of 14 studies showed estimates higher than 50% but five did not). The last two columns show whether there is moderate strength evidence; this was measured amongst medium and high quality studies and it was present, according to our grading system, if there was a minimum of three high quality studies in which <70% but >50% reported similar findings or if >50% of all studies reported similar findings with a minimum of three medium quality studies (e.g. there was moderate strength evidence that >50% of all people preferred dying at home because the consistency amongst high quality studies was 73%, i.e. more than half of the studies showed estimates higher than 50%).
  2. aConsistency of findings across studies is shown as a percentage (number of high quality studies pointing in same direction / total number of high quality studies on topic).