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Table 1 Item subgroups stratified by DRS c cutoff

From: Prevalence and risk factors of depressive symptoms in a Canadian palliative home care population: a cross-sectional study

Item Categories Unadjusted OR (95% CI)a All patients (%) nbN = 5144 DRS < 3% (n) N = 4339 DRS ≥ 3% (n) N = 448h p value for χ 2test of Significance % (n) missingi
Age 18-64 1.8 (1.3, 2.5) 34.0% (1626) 33.0% (1432) 43.3% (194) <0.0001 0.0% (0)
65-74 1.3 (0.9, 1.9) 25.5% (1219) 25.5% (1107) 25.0% (112)
75-84 1.1 (0.7,1.5) 28.7% (1375) 29.3% (1273) 22.8% (102)
85+ Reference 11.8% (567) 12.2% (527) 8.9% (40)
Gender Female 1.2 (1.0,1.5) 50.9% (2422) 50.4% (2175) 55.6% (247) 0.0369 0.6% (30)
Male Reference 49.1% (2335) 49.6% (2138) 44.4% (197)
Marital status No partner 1.0 (0.8. 1.2) 38.7% (1785) 38.8% (1622) 38.3% (163) 0.8359 3.7% (178)
Married or have partner Reference 61.3% (2824) 61.2% (2561) 61.7% (263)
Sitec windsor Site 1 0.6 (0.3,1.1) 3.6% (174) 3.7% (161) 2.9% (13) 0.1079 0.0% (0)
Site 2 0.7 (0.4, 1.0) 64.4% (3083) 64.8% (2812) 60.5% (271)
Site 3 0.7 (0.5, 1.2) 16.8% (802) 16.7% (726) 17.0% (76)
Site 4 0.9 (0.5, 1.5) 8.3% (397) 8.1% (352) 10.0% (45)
Site 5 1.1 (0.6, 2.2) 2.4% (116) 2.3% (100) 3.6% (116)
Site 6 Reference 4.5% (215) 4.3% (188) 6.0% (27)
Co-morbidities (#)d C 5+ 1.8 (1.3, 2.4) 9.6% (458) 9.1% (395) 14.1% (63) 0.0003 0.0% (0)
3-4 1.3 (1.0,1.6) 32.7% (1564) 32.4% (1405) 35.5% (159)
0-2 Reference 57.8% (2765) 58.5% (2539) 50.5% (226)  
Diagnosis prima Cancer 0.8 (0.5, 1.1) 86.5% (4141) 91.6% (3791) 8.4% (350) 0.3094 0.0% (0)
Cardiovascular 0.7 (0.4, 1.1) 4.6% (220) 92.6% (204) 7.4% (16)
COPD 0.7 (0.3, 1.5) 1.7% (81) 92.6% (75) 7.4% (6)
Other Reference 7.2% (345) 89.1% (307) 10.9% (38)
Prognosis Death imminent (days) - < 6 wks 2.7 (2.0,3.8) 8.6% (358) 7.9% (295) 14.9% (74) <0.0001 12.8% (615)
>6 wks - < 6 mths 1.6 (1.3, 2.1) 47.6% (1987) 47.0% (1760) 53.7% (227)  
6+ mths Reference 42.8% (1827) 45.2% (1694) 31.4% (133)
CHESSe Moderate, Severe (2+) 3.3 (2.2, 4.8) 83.0% (3770) 81.9% (3359) 93.6% (412) <0.0001 5.1% (247)
None, Minimal (0,1) Reference 17.0% (770) 18.1% (742) 6.4% (28)
Awareness of prognosis No 1.4 (1.1, 1.8) 45.8% (924) 44.2% (786) 52.5% (138) 0.0122 13.0%j (305)
Yes Reference 54.7% (1116) 55.8% (991) 47.5% (125)
Pain scale Moderate-Severe ((2+) 2.4 (1.9, 3.0) 64.1% (3034) 62.6% (2680) 79.7% (354) <0.0001 1.2% (59)
None, Minimal (0,1) Reference 35.8% (1694) 37.4% (1604) 20.3% (90)
CPSf Moderate-high impairment (2+) 2.1 (1.7, 2.6) 16.6% (796) 15.5% (671) 27.9% (125) <0.0001 0.0% (0)
None, Low impairment (0,1) Reference 83.4% (3991) 84.5% (3668) 72.1% (323)
ADL SHSg Limited, Extensive (2+) 1.4 (1.1, 1.7) 37.4% (1752) 36.7% (1560) 44.0% (192) 0.0027 2.2% (103)
Independent (0,1) Reference 62.6% (2932) 63.3% (2688) 56.0% (244)
Communication disorders Yes 1.2 (1.1, 1.6) 29.0% (1374) 28.5% (1223) 33.9% (151) 0.0171 1.0% (46)
No Reference 71.0% (3367) 71.5% (3072) 66.1% (295)
Sleep disorders Severe 3.5 (2.8, 4.4) 27.0% (1245) 24.9% (1039) 48.1% (206) <0.0001 3.7% (178)
Moderate 2.1 (1.6, 2.8) 17.5% (808) 17.3% (723) 19.9% (85)
Minimal Reference 55.5% (2556) 57.9% (2419) 32.0% (137)
Appetite Poor 1.7 (1.3, 2.1) 22.5% (1038) 21.5% (898) 31.8% (140) <0.0001 3.5% (166)
Good Reference 77.5% (3583) 78.5% (3283) 68.2% (300)
Dyspnea Severe 1.4 (1.1, 1.8) 15.8% (750) 15.4% (662) 19.8% (88) 0.0301 1.1% (51)
Moderate 1.2 (0.9, 1.4) 29.2% (1383) 29.1% (1250) 30.0% (133)
Minimal Reference 55.0% (2603) 55.5% (2380) 50.2% (223)
Gastrointestinal symptoms Moderate-severe 1.9 (1.5, 2.3) 45.2%% (2037) 43.7% (1785) 59.0% (252) <0.0001 5.8% (277)
  Minimal Reference 54.8% (2473) 56.3% (2298) 41.0% (175)
Life satisfaction Low life-satisfaction 2.8 (2.3, 3.5) 41.0% (1846) 38.6% (1574) 64.0% (272) <0.0001 6.0% (287)
High life-satisfaction Reference 59.0% (2654) 61.4% (2501) 36.0% (153)
Living alone Living alone 1.3 (1.0, 1.7Q) 19.3% (892) 19.6% (822) 16.0% (70) 0.0670 3.3% (157)
Living with others Reference 80.7% (3738) 80.4% (3370) 84.0% (368)
Supportive family No strong family support 1.6 (1.1, 2.4) 4.7% (222) 4.5% (191) 7.0% (31) 0.0170 1.1% (53)
Strong, supportive family Reference 95.3% (4512) 95.6% (4098) 93.0% (414)
Caregiver distress Caregiver exhibits signs of distress 2.7 (2.2, 3.3) 23.3% (1063) 21.3% (878) 42.2% (185) <0.0001 4.7% (227)
  Caregiver does not exhibit signs of distress Reference 76.7% (3497) 78.7% (3244) 57.8% (253)   
  1. a95% CI straddling 1.0 are not statistically significant.
  2. bSubgroup totals are the total sample (n = 5144) less clients where DRS or item was missing.
  3. cAll 6 sites are located in Ontario, Canada; site names not shown to protect patient confidentiality.
  4. dIncludes primary diagnosis.
  5. eCHESS = Change in Health, End-Stage and Disease Symptoms and Signs.
  6. fCPS = Cognitive Performance Scale.
  7. gADL SHS = Activities of Daily Living Self-performance Hierarchy Scale.
  8. hCorresponds to a prevalence of depressive symptoms of 9.4% [448/(4339 + 448)×100].
  9. iExpressed as the number missing for this item divided by the number of clients with a non-missing DRS score (4787 of the 5144 clients in the total sample), multiplied by 100.
  10. jExpressed as the number of clients missing for this item divided by the number of clients with non-missing DRS scores and a prognosis < 6 months (n = 2345), multiplied by 100.