Skip to main content

Table 3 Need variables: descriptive characteristics of clients with at least one emergency department visits or hospitalizations (n = 764)

From: Predictors of emergency room visits or acute hospital admissions prior to death among hospice palliative care clients in Ontario: a retrospective cohort study

Variable Sample % (n) Rate of ERVH % (n) p value Unadjusted 95% Confidence interval
Odds ratio
Significant variables (based on p value)
Believes physical function can improve 1
No 77.6 (593) 48.6 (256) p < .01 1  
Yes 22.4 (171) 67.8 (116) 2.31 1.61-3.31
Bladder/bowel incontinence
No 71.9 (538) 58.5 (315) p < .01 1  
Yes 28.1 (210) 36.4 (76) 0.41 0.29-0.57
Swallowing difficulties
No 71.4 (527) 57.9 (305) p < .01 1  
Yes 28.6 (211) 38.1 (80) 0.46 0.33-0.64
Potential delirium 2      
No 84.2 (624) 57.0 (355) p < .01 1  
Yes 15.8 (117) 30.8 (36) 0.35 0.23-0.53
Activities of daily living Hierarchy scale 3
(0) Independent 48.4 (335) 67.2 (225) p < .01 1  
(1,2,3,4,5,6) Dependent 51.6 (357) 41.3 (147) 0.44 0.33-0.59
Cognitive skills for daily decision making 4
(0) Intact 78.0 (574) 58.2 (334) p < .01 1  
(1,2,3,4,5) Impaired 22.0 (162) 32.7 (53) 0.36 0.25-0.52
Chess scale 5
(0,1,2) Stable Health 34.4 (239) 66.1 (158) p < .01 1  
(3,4,5)Unstable Health 65.6 (455) 44.8 (204)   0.47 0.35-0.64
Weight loss 6
No 49.3 (377) 57.3 (216) 0.005 1  
Yes 50.6 (387) 47.3 (183) 0.67 0.50-0.89
Pressure ulcer
No 85.5 (645) 55.2 (348) 0.01 1  
Yes 14.5 (109) 46.7 (45) 0.60 0.40-0.90
Peripheral edema
No 67.1 (501) 55.2 (276) 0.03 1  
Yes 32.9 (246) 46.7 (115) 0.72 0.53-0.98
Previous hospitalization (last 90 days)
No hospitalization within 90 days 32.5 (248) 58.9 (146) 0.03 1  
31 to 90 days ago 36.4 (278) 50.4 (140) 0.63 0.44-0.90
In the last 30 days 31.1 (238) 47.5 (113) 0.71 0.50-1.0
Not significant variables (based on p value)
Cancer
No 12.0 (92) 42.9 (39) 0.07 1  
Yes 88.0 (672) 53.4 (359) 1.49 0.96-2.31
Dizziness
No 68.1 (505) 54.4 (274) 0.09 1  
Yes 31.9 (237) 47.7 (113) 0.77 0.56-1.04
Falls in the last 90 days
No 74.4 (549) 54.6 (299) 0.10 1  
Yes 25.6 (189) 47.6 (90) 0.78 0.56-1.09
Instrumental activities of Daily living 7
(0) Independent 4.0 (30) 66.7 (20) 0.10 1  
(1,2,3,4,5,6,8) Dependent 96.0 (718) 51.2 (370) 0.62 0.34-1.15
Diabetes
No 92.8 (709) 51.5 (365) 0.23 1  
Yes 7.2 (55) 60.0 (33) 1.41 0.80-2.46
Prior urinary tract infection
No 95.5 (730) 94.74 (378) 0.26 1  
Yes 4.4 (34) 5.26 (21) 1.50 0.74-3.05
Prior pneumonia
No 93.2 (712) 92.7 (370) 0.60 1  
Yes 6.8 (52) 7.3 (29) 1.16 0.66-2.05
Fatigue
No 0.7 (5) 60.0 (3) 0.71 1  
Yes 99.3 (730) 51.7 (377) 0.66 0.33-1.34
Dyspnea
No 30.8 (226) 53.1 (120) 0.85 1  
Yes 69.2 (508) 52.3 (265) 1.02 0.75-1.37
Pain
(0) Not Present 25.9 (187) 52.9 (99) 0.96 1  
(1,2,3) Present 74.1 (536) 53.2 (285) 1.14 0.83-1.55
  1. Note: Odds ratio = 1 indicates reference group.
  2. 1The client’s perception regarding his or her ability to improve in the area of physical functioning.
  3. 2Periodic disordered thinking or awareness (i.e. easily distracted, episodes of disorganized speech, and mental function varies over the course of the day).
  4. 3Assesses basic independent living skills based on items such as eating, personal hygiene, toileting, and locomotion within the home.
  5. 4Person’s actual performance in making everyday decisions about the tasks or activities of daily living (e.g., choosing items of clothing, knowing when to eat meals).
  6. 5Changes in Health, End Stage Disease, Signs and Symptoms: a scale that predicts mortality and instability in health based on items such as weight loss, shortness of breath, vomiting, dehydration, leaving food uneaten, and peripheral edema.
  7. 6Weight loss of 5% or more in the last 30 days, or 10% or more in the last 180 days.
  8. 7Self-performance in areas of function that are most commonly associated with independent living (i.e., meal preparation, ordinary housework, managing medications).