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Table 2 Support/Counselling Interventions

From: Bereavement care interventions: a systematic review

Type Format Pop CG RA Num TSL (days) DT Key Outcome Measures Article
Mutual/Self-help Individual Adult Y Y-NE 162/62 ~30 NR Psychiatric Functioning (GHQ); Social Support/psychological and psychophysiological variables (author-created) Vachon, Lyall, et al, 1980
Mutual/Self-help (included professionally-lead groups) Group Senior Y RS 339/295 30–60 56, 365 days Self-Esteem (Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale); Life Satisfaction (LSI-A); Depression (GDS); Grief (TRIG) Caserta & Lund, 1983
Mutual/Self-help Group Senior Y N 23 34–474 21 days; 7 sessions Domain Specific State Locus of Control (Zeigler-Reid State Locus of Control Measure); Trait Locus of Control (I-E); Distress (BSI, GSI) McKibbin, Guarnaccia, et al, 1997
Mutual/Self-Help Group Adult Y Y 113/67 90–365 63 days; 9 sessions Depression (GHQ, BDI); Anxiety (STAI); Social Functioning (SAS); Social Support (SSQ) Tudiver, Hilditch, et al, 1992
Mutual/Self-help Group Adult Y Y-NE 113/112 90–365 63 days Healthcare visit rates (Family Physician, Specialist, Psychiatrist) Tudiver, Permaul-Woods, et al, 1995
Mutual/Self-help Group Adult Y N 38/21 90–750 70 days; 10 sessions Treatment Expectancy (Expectancy Scale); Depression (BDI); Avoidance, Anxiety (Social Anxiety and Distress Scale); Enjoyability (Pleasant Events Scale); Life Satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Scale) Walls & Meyers, 1985
Mutual/Self-help Group Adult Y N 721/502 ~1290 365 days; >3 sessions Depression, Anxiety, Somatization (Hopkins Symptom Checklist); Self Esteem, Well-being, Mastery (Not reported) Lieberman & Videka-Sherman, 1986
Mutual/Self-help Group Adult Y N 667/391 365–1095 365 days Depression, Anxiety, Somatization (Not reported); Self Esteem (Rosenberg 1965); Life Satisfaction, Mastery, Medication (Not reported); Social Functioning Parental Functioning Attitudes (BPQ) Videka-Sherman & Lieberman, 1985
Mutual/Self-help Group Adult N Y-NE 61/55 120–1095 84 days; 12 sessions Avoidance/Intrusion (IES); Stress Symptoms (SRRS); Depression (BDI); Mental Distress (BPRS, SCL-90); Social Functioning (SAS-SR); Overall Functioning (GAS) Marmar, Horowitz, et al, 1988**
Mutual/Self-help Group Adult N NA 53/33 <730 8 sessions, optional 4 Psychosomatic Symptoms (SCL-90 subscales: somatization, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation, psychoticism, GSI) Rogers, Sheldon, et al, 1982
Professionally Lead Individual Adult Y NR 493/225 120 1 day; 1 session Grief (HGRC) Kaunonen, Tarkka, et al, 2000
Professionally Lead Family Adult Y Y-NE 50/30 1–2 1–120 days; up to 8 sessions General Health Questionnaire (self-rated); Anxiety, Depression (Leeds Scale) Forrest, Standish, & Baum, 1982
Professionally Lead Family Adult Y UC 334/161* <1–180 7–70 days; up to 10 sessions Medical Illness (CMI, MMPI); Psychiatric Illness (Boston Bereavement, Mood Inventory); Family Functioning (Ferriera-Winter, Bodin Drawing); Crisis Coping (Intrapersonal, Family, Job/Financial, Social); Social Cost (Gross Income, Living Expenses, Absenteeism, Economic Loss) Williams, Lee, & Polak, 1976 Polak, Egan, et al, 1975
Professionally Lead Family Adult Y UC 176/86* <1–180 7–70 days; up to 10 sessions Neurotic Symptoms Scale; Bodin Family Closeness; Crisis Coping Scale; Religious helping of others; Authoritarian Family Functioning; Depression; Monthly Income; Monthly Expenses; Social Costs; Bereavement Adjustment Williams & Polak, 1979
Professionally Lead Family Adult N NA 77/37* <1 >360 days Personal and social phenomena of death (structured interview) Oliver, Sturtevant, et al, 2001
Professionally Lead Family Child Y Y-NE 72/55 <730 15 sessions Depression (CDI, CBCL, PERI Demoralization Scale); Parental Warmth (CRPBI); Family Cohesion (Family Environment Scale); Parent perception of support (author-created scale); Family Coping (F-COPES) Sandler, West, et al, 1992
Professionally Lead Group Senior N NR 28/11 90–7300 <140 days; up to 20 sessions Social Support (ASSIS); Affect/Mood (PANAS); Emotional/Social Loneliness (ESLI) Stewart, Craig, et al, 2001
Professionally Lead Group Adult Y Y 197/166 <180 70 days; 10 sessions Grief (TRIG, GRI); Distress (POMS); Depression and Anxiety (SIGH-AD) Goodkin, Blaney, et al, 1999
Professionally Lead Group Adult Y Y-NE 242/185 0–35 77 days; 3 sessions Distress (POMS-TMD, Anxiety-tension, Depression-dejection, Anger-hostility, Confusion-bewilderment, Overall emotional disturbance); Self-Esteem (Rosenberg 1965 scale) Swanson, 1999
Professionally Lead Group Adult Y Y-NE 150/120 30–240 270 days Depression (CES-D, BDI); Anxiety (A-Sta); Somatic Symptoms (SOM); Emotional Symptoms (EMOT); Life Satisfaction (Lsat, SelfAnch) Kay, Guernsey de Zapien, et al, 1993
Professionally Lead Group Adult Y Y-NE 119/119 <180 70 days; up to 10 sessions Immunological measures (CD3+CD4+ cell count, CD3+CD8+ cell count, CD4/CD8 ratio, CD3+ cell count, CD4 cell count, Lymphocyte count, T-lymphocyte count); Neuroendocrine measure (Plasma cortisol level) Goodkin, Feaster, et al, 1998
Professionally Lead Group Adult Y Y-NE 110/80 ~730 28 days; 8 sessions Coping and Adaptation (TAT) Balk, Lampe, et al, 1998
Professionally Lead Group Adult Y Y-NE 36/36 <180 70 days; up to 10 sessions Plasma Viral Load (HIV-1 RNA copy number) Goodkin, Baldewicz, et al, 2001
Professionally Lead Group Adult Y N 159/127 42–140 Up to 25 sessions Social Support (SSES); Group Involvement (Liberman & Videka-Sherman, 1986); Depression (CES-D, POMS-D); Anger (POMS-A); Anxiety (POMS-T); Stress (IES) Levy, Derby, et al, 1993
Professionally Lead Group Adult Y N 121 30–4745 30–365 days Grief (HGRC subscales: Despair, Panic behavior, Personal growth, Blame and Anger, Detachment, Disorganization) DiMarco, Menke, & McNamara, 2001
Professionally Lead Group Adult N Y 139/107 90–17155 84 days; 12 sessions Avoidance/Intrusion (IES); Grief (TRIG); Interpersonal Distress (IIP); Social Functioning (SAS-SR); Depression (BDI); Anxiety (STAI); Mental Distress (BSI, GSI); Self-Esteem (SES); Physical Functioning (SF-36); Symptomatic Distress (SCL-90) Piper, McCallum, et al, 2001**
Professionally Lead Group Adult N N 83/70 <30–8030 49 days; 7 sessions Physical, Emotional, and Social Functioning (author created measures); Self Esteem (Rosenberg, 1962); Locus of Control (I-E); Life satisfaction (Neugarten, Havighurdt, & Tobin, 1961); Attitude Toward Women (Spence & Helmreich, 1972, Gump 1972) Barrett, 1978
Professionally Lead Group Adult N NA 392/77 NR 56 days Distress (BSI); Group Process and Satisfaction (author created questionnaire) Glajchen & Magen, 1995
Professionally Lead Group Adult N NA 174/138 780 730 days Motives for joining (Lieberman 1979); Interpersonal relations (Porat 1987); Group leadership style (Porat 1987); Perceived contribution of treatment on recovery Geron, Ginsberg, & Solomon, 2003
Professionally Lead Group Adult N NA 21/21 NR 70 days; up to 10 sessions Perceived Social Support (PRQ); Perceived Stress (PSS) Davis, Hoshiko, et al, 1992
Professionally Lead Group Adult N NA 21/21 365–3650 52 days; up to 8 sessions Depression (CDI); Anxiety (HSC-25); Knowledge of Death and Bereavement (KDBQ) Stoddart, Burke, & Temple, 2002
Professionally Lead Group Adult N NA 20 90–1095 <1095 days; unlimited sessions Grief (TRIG); Social Network (SNM, SNG) Forte, Barrett, & Campbell, 1996
Professionally Lead Group Adult N NA 12/5 60–780 28 days; 8 sessions Emotional Distress (EPI); Family Adjustment (FACES-III); Social Adjustment (SAS-SR) Heiney, Ruffin, & Goon-Johnson, 1995
Professionally Lead Group Child Y Y-NE 17/17 >730 42 days; 6 sessions Self-Esteem (PH); Depression (CDI); Behavior (CBCL-TRF, CBCL-YSR) Huss & Ritchie, 1999
Professionally Lead Group Child N NA 38/29 <900 300 days; 12 sessions Depression (BID); Attitude/ Conception of Death (ATCD) Shilling, Koh, et al, 1992
Professionally Lead Group Child N NA 18/18 <730 52 days; 8 sessions Bereavement Survey (author created); Loss Resolution (LRS-Modified); Distress and Somatic Complaints (ALAC) Opie, Goodwin, Finke, et al, 1992
Professionally Lead Group Child N NA 6/6 240–1020 42 days; 6 sessions Psychological measures (Lewis Counselling Inventory, IPAT) Quarmby, 1993
Professionally Lead Group Child N NA 4/4 <90 77 days; 11 sessions Self-Esteem (Piers-Harris Self-Concept Scale); Descriptive (Risk Impact, Negative Chain Events, Opening Up Opportunities) Zambelli & DeRosa, 1992
Professionally Lead Couple/ Marital Adult Y Y-NE 57/31 NR Mean of 6 sessions Grief (TRIG); Irritability, Depression, Anger (IDA) Lilford, Stratton, et al, 1994
  1. Notes: * Families, not individuals. ** Study also included psychotherapy condition. Legend: Type, Type of Intervention; Format, Format of Intervention; Pop, Target Population; CG, Control Group; RA, Random Assignment; Num, Number of subjects; TSL, Time Since Loss; DT, Duration of Trial; NA, Not Applicable; NR, Not Reported; UC, Unclear; Y, Yes; N, No; Y-NE, Randomization mentioned, but allocation method not explicitly stated; RS, Randomization Subverted.