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Table 4 HADS anxiety (HADA) and depression (HADD) scores for participants, persons unable to participate, and persons not wanting to participate in bereavement groups

From: The effect of bereavement groups on grief, anxiety, and depression - a controlled, prospective intervention study

  Participants n=38 (%) Unable to participate n=25 (%) Did not want to participate n=61 (%)
Anxiety score non cases doubtful cases cases non cases doubtful cases cases non cases doubtful cases cases
Pre-intervention n=120 20 (55) 10 (28) 6 (17) 12 (50) 2 (8) 10 (42) 51 (85) 4 (7) 5 (8)
range 0–7 8–10 12–20 0–7 8 11–18 0–7 8–10 11–17
 - Mean HADA 4.2 8.8 14.5 3.7 8.0 14.4 3.5 9.0 13.2
 - Confidence interval (95%) 3.2–5.2 8.2–9.4 11.4–17.6 2.2–5.1   12.5–16.3 2.8–4.2 7.7–10.3 10.1–16.3
Five weeks post-intervention n=121 23 (61) 5 (13) 10 (26) 12 (48) 6 (24) 7 (28) 49 (85) 6 (10) 3 (5)
range 0–7 8–9 11–20 1–7 8–10 13–18 0–7 8–10 11–15
 - Mean HADA 3.5 8.2 14.3 4.2 9.0 14.7 2.8 9.2 13.3
 - Confidence interval (95%) 2.6–4.4 7.6–8.8 12.4–16.2 3.0–5.5 8.1–9.9 12.9–16.5 2.2–3.4 8.4–10.0 8.2–18.5
One year post-intervention n=124 26 (68) 5 (13) 7 (18) 13 (52) 4 (16) 8 (32) 49 (80) 8 (13) 4 (7)
range 0–7 8–10 11–17 0–7 8–10 11–18 0–7 8–10 11–13
 - Mean HADA 3.3 8.6 13.6 3.2 9.0 13.8 2.9 8.6 11.8
 - Confidence interval (95%) 2.3–4.2 7.5–9.7 11.6–15. 6 1.8–4.6 7.2–10.8 11.4–16.1 2.2–3.5 8.0–9.2 10.2–13.3
Depression score non cases doubtful cases cases non cases doubtful cases cases non cases doubtful cases cases
Pre-intervention n=120 25 (69) 5 (14) 6 (17) 15 (62) 5 (21) 4 (17) 47 (79) 11 (18) 2 (3)
range 1–7 8–10 11–19 0–7 8 12–18 0–7 8–10 11–18
 - Mean HADD 4.0 9.0 14.0 4.2 8.0 13.5 3.5 9.3 14.5
 - Confidence interval (95%) 3.2–4.8 8.1–9.9 11.1–16.9 2.8–5.6   8.7–18.3 2.8–4.2 8.8–9.7 N/A
Five weeks post-intervention n=121 27 (71) 5 (13) 6 (16) 16 (64) 3 (12) 6 (24) 46 (79) 6 (10) 6 (10)
range 0–7 8–10 11–19 0–7 8–10 11–16 0–7 8–9 11–19
 - Mean HADD 3.8 8.4 14.0 3.2 8.7 12.5 3.1 8.2 14.0
 - Confidence interval (95%) 2.9–4.8 7.3–9.5 10.6–17.4 2.0–4.5 5.8–11.5 10.5–14.5 2.4–3.7 7.7–8.6 10.6–17.4
One year post-intervention n=124 28 (74) 6 (16) 4 (10) 18 (72) 4 (16) 3 (12) 49 (80) 6 (10) 6 (10)
range 0–7 8–10 11–17 1–7 8–9 15–19 0–7 8–10 11–15
 - Mean HADD 2.7 8.7 13.5 3.3 8.5 17.3 3.1 9.2 12. 7
 - Confidence interval (95%) 1.9–3.5 7.8–9.5 9.3–17.7 2.1–4.5 7.6–9.4 12.2–22.5 2.4–3.8 8.4–10.0 11.0–14.4
  1. p-values are presented in the text