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Table 3 Table of all 96 categories, subsumed to umbrella-terms and levels

From: Patients’ perception of types of errors in palliative care – results from a qualitative interview study

Level Umbrella term Category Classification
1 Definition (n = 21) Interpersonal subjectivity
Intrapersonal subjectivity
To err is human
Wrong reaction
Wrong decision
Wrong assessment
Deviation from a plan
Harm
Wrong outcome
Difficult
comprehensive
   Error of a person
Doing nothing
exclusive: general error
   Violation of learned facts
Deviation from a standard
Need for progress
Not maximizing the best for a patient
exclusive: medical error
   Patients personal opinion
Dignity
Consideration of the physician
Acceptance of symptom management without diagnosis
Difficult
exclusive: error in palliative care
  Differences (n = 4) Weight
Standards
general error/medical error
   Existing differences
No differences
medical error/error in palliative care
2 Types (n = 23) Diagnosis
Therapy
Missed alternative treatment options
Medication administration (wrong administartion or mix-up)
Medication dosage
Medication - useless or not meaningful
Depersonalization
Not perceived as an informed patient
Help not fast enough
Confidentiality
not palliative care specific
   Breach of the patient’s wishes or patient’s advance care directives
Trust/empathy
Psychologically
Communication
Information
Resuscitation
Prognosis
Nursing measures
Insufficient symptom management
Preparation for death not possible
Involvement of relatives
Sedation
Patient as guinea pig
palliative care specific
3 Causing person (n = 6) Physicians
Nurses
Carers in general
Patients
Relatives
Others
 
  Causes (n = 20) Uninfluenceable
Character traits
Environmental factors
Chain reaction
causes for errors in general
   Rigidity
Ambition
Paternalism
Infallibility of the physician
Acceptance of errors due to imminent death
related to the physician
   Lack of time
Lack of personnel
Teamwork
Communication
Coordination
Antipathy
Training/knowledge
Human weaknesses
Lack of evidence
Inadequate care motivation
related to the nurses/carers
   Lack of patient resources related to the patient
  Affected person (n = 3) Patients
Professionals
Others
 
  Consequences (n = 9) Shortening of life
Mental burden
Distressing symptoms
Physician-patient-family-relationship strain
Limitation of mobility/autonomy
affected person: patient
   Judiciary
Physician’s reputation
Disciplinary actions
affected person: physician
   Compensation no certain affected person
  Meaning (n = 5) Exceptional circumstances of the patient
Eppraisal in the context of approaching death
Death caused by an error - terrible
Death caused by an error - less terrible
Individually different
 
  Recogintion (n = 1) Recognition of errors by the patient  
  Handling (n = 9) Culture of errors
Public disclosure
Disclosure to the team
Disclosure to the patient
Reparation
Apology
Learning from errors
Discussion
Cause analysis
 
  Prevention (n = 10) Teamwork
Communication
Information
Advanced directives
Education/knowledge
Work routine
Staff
Time
Patient collaboration
Patients’ resources