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Table 1 Patient characteristics by settings of care (n = 191)

From: Patients’ perceptions of palliative care quality in hospice inpatient care, hospice day care, palliative units in nursing homes, and home care: a cross-sectional study

Characteristics Settings of care  
   Hospice inpatient
(n = 72)
Hospice day care
(n = 51)
Palliative units in nursing homes
(n = 30)
Home care
(n = 38)
P-value
Age, mean score (SD)   63.81 (11.25) 62.88 (10.33) 70.00 (10.65) 74.79 (10.65) <0.001/<0.001*
 Range   41–86 42–83 50–88 55–94  
 Missing 7      
Gender, n (%)       0.356
 Female   35 (50.0) 33 (66.0) 17 (56.7) 23 (60.5)  
 Male   35 (50.0) 17 (34.0) 13 (43.3) 15 (39.5)  
 Missing 3      
Education, n (%)       <0.002
 Primary school or high school (or equivalent)   34 (47.9) 33 (66.0) 23 (79.3) 29 (80.6)  
 University/university college   37 (52.1) 17 (34.0) 6 (20.7) 7 (19.4)  
 Missing 5      
First languagea, n (%)       0.335
 Norwegian   64 (88.9) 45 (90.0) 30 (100) 38 (100)  
 Sami   0 0 0 0  
 Other Nordic language   3 (4.2) 1 (2.0) 0 0  
 Other European language   4 (5.6) 4 (8.0) 0 0  
 Non-European language   1 (1.4) 0 0 0  
 Missing 1      
Living conditions, n (%)       0.396
 Living alone   34 (47.2) 30 (60.0) 17 (56.7) 16 (42.1)  
 Living with a partner   29 (40.3) 15 (30.0) 10 (33.3) 20 (52.6)  
 Living with children aged <18 years   7 (9.7) 2 (4.0) 1 (3.3) 1 (2.6)  
 Living with others   2 (2.8) 3 (6.0) 2 (6.7) 1 (2.6)  
 Missing 1      
The amount of contact with family or friends, n(%)       0.250
 Daily   47 (66.2) 22 (44.0) 20 (66.7) 21 (55.3)  
 Several times a week   19 (26.8) 22 (44.0) 8 (26.7) 15 (39.5)  
 Once a week to once a month   5 (7.0) 6 (12.0) 2 (6.7) 2 (5.3)  
 Less than once a month   0 0 0 0  
 No contact with family or friends   0 0 0 0  
 Missing 2      
The sufficiency of contact with family or friends, n(%)       0.675
 Too often   2 (2.9) 1 (2.0) 2 (6.7) 0  
 Sufficient   61 (87.1) 43 (86.0) 23 (76.7) 33 (86.8)  
 Too seldom   7 (10.0) 6 (12.0) 5 (16.7) 5 (13.2)  
 Missing 3      
Number of diagnoses, n (%)       <0.001
 One diagnosis   61 (84.7) 36 (72.0) 11 (36.7) 24 (63.2)  
 Two or more diagnoses   11 (15.3) 14 (28.0) 19 (63.3) 14 (36.8)  
 Missing 1      
Type of diagnosisa, n (%)       <0.001
 Malign diagnoses (cancer)   69 (95.8) 38 (76.0) 17 (56.7) 20 (52.6)  
 Non-malign diagnoses (e.g. COPD, HF, MS, ALS, Parkinson’s disease)   0 (0) 8 (16.0) 8 (26.7) 15 (39.5)  
 Mixed malign and non-malign diagnosis   3 (4.2) 4 (8.0) 5 (16.7) 3 (7.9)  
 Missing 1      
Time in care (days), n (%)       <0.001
 3–7   23 (34.3) 3 (6.3) 5 (20.7) 0  
 8–30   25 (37.3) 7 (14.6) 18 (62.1) 2 (5.7)  
 31–182 days (1–6 months)   9 (13.4) 23 (47.9) 3 (10.3) 13 (37.1)  
 > 183 (>6 months)   10 (14.9) 15 (31.3) 2 (6.0) 20 (57.1)  
 Missing 12      
Religious affiliation, n (%)       0.345
 No   30 (45.5) 24 (52.2) 19 (65.5) 20 (54.1)  
 Yes   36 (54.4) 22 (47.8) 10 (34.5) 17 (45.9)  
 Missing 13      
Sense of coherence (SocTotal), mean score (SD)   62.56 (11.68) 61.50 (10.00) 60.77 (10.18) 65.41 (12.18) 0.407
 Range   29–91 31–84 45–81 42–87  
 Missing 44      
Physiological wellbeing, mean score (SD)   3.56 (0.93) 3.62 (0.83) 3.23 (1.03) 3.48 (0.96) 0.356
 Missing 21      
Health-related quality of life (EQ VAS), mean score(SD)   47.95 (22.03) 50.49 (21.08) 42.69 (17.16) 48.19 (18.52) 0.480
 Range   5–90 0–90 10–85 5–90  
 Missing 25      
  1. ALS amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, HF heart failure, MS multiple sclerosis
  2. aFor descriptive purpose only. The numbers of participants in the subgroups are too few to be included in further analysis
  3. P value refers to differences between patients in the four settings measured by one-way between-group ANOVA or Pearson’s χ2 for independence, as appropriate. Statistical significance was assumed at the P <0.025 level
  4. *P value refers to differences between patients within the four settings, measured with Tukey honest significant difference post-hoc comparison. Mean age for hospice inpatient and hospice day care was significantly different from that for home care (<0.001/<0.001)