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Table 4 Information used as part of recognising dying

From: Clinical decision making in the recognition of dying: a qualitative interview study

  Symptoms and signs Other information
Cancer Breathlessness (7) Pain (2) “Observations” (4) Imaging (4)
Difficulty with oral intake (6) Incontinence (1) Oxygen saturations (3) Biochemistry tests (3)
Reduced conscious level (6) Agitation (1) Hypotension (3) “Bloods” (2)
Bedbound (4) Clamminess (1) Respiratory rate (3) Haemoglobin (1)
Skin colour (4) Cachexia/loss of muscle bulk (1) Urine output (2) Albumin (1)
Respiratory tract secretions (3) Weight loss (1) High temperature (1) White cell count (1)
Other respiratory changes (3) Increased dependence (1) Bradycardia (1) CRP (1)
Increased sleep (3) Anxiety (1) EWS (1) Blood cultures (1)
Confusion (3) Jaundice (1) Chest drain output (1) ECG (1)
Fatigue/energy level (3) Ascites (1) Specific instance not to use observations (1)
Nausea/vomiting (2) SVCO symptoms (1)
Reduced responsiveness (2) Odour (1)
Weakness (2) Headache (1)
Cool peripheries (2)  
Heart failure Breathlessness (5) Housebound (1) Body weight (3) Biochemistry tests (4)
Difficulty with oral intake (4) Oedema (1) Hypotension (3) “Bloods” (2)
Increased dependence (3) Confusion (1) Urine output (3) Echocardiography (2)
Weight gain (3) Increased sleep (1) “Observations” (2) ABG (1)
Reduced conscious level (2) Ascites (1) Glasgow Coma Scale (1) CT head (1)
Other respiratory symptoms (2) Pain (1) Tachycardia (1) Serum sodium (1)
Cachexia/loss of muscle bulk (2) Skin colour (1) Fluid balance (1)
Bedbound (2) Fatigue (1)
Unable to express wishes (1)  
  1. Figures in parentheses indicate the number of times each example was grounded in the data by a unique participant
  2. SVCO Superior Vena Cava Obstruction, EWS Early Warning Score, GCS Glasgow Coma Scale