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Table 2 Japanese medical schools with palliative medicine education instructors with various professional backgrounds, 2001 through 2015 (in percentages)

From: A survey of palliative medicine education in Japan’s undergraduate medical curriculum

  2001 (N = 67) 2005 (N = 72) 2009 (N = 66) 2012 (N = 67) 2015
All (N = 66) Department of palliative medicine (+) (N = 11) Department of palliative medicine (−) (N = 55) P value
Anesthesia 37 (55.2) 38 (52.8) 45 (68.2) 40 (59.7) 34 (51.5) 1 (9.1) 33 (60.0) P = 0.002
Internal medicine 14 (20.9) 25 (34.7) 20 (30.3) 20 (29.9) 13 (19.7) 1 (9.1) 12 (21.8) NS
Surgery 24 (35.8) 14 (19.4) 17 (25.8) 13 (19.4) 7 (10.6) 1 (9.1) 6 (10.9) NS
Psychiatry 14 (20.9) 8 (11.1) 14 (21.2) 16 (23.9) 19 (28.8) 1 (9.1) 18 (32.7) NS
Palliative medicine 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 14 (20.9) 31 (47.0) 9 (81.8) 22 (40.0) P = 0.018