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Table 5 Means, standard deviations (SD), t-values and degrees of freedom (df) of the self-report variables MBI, PSQ-20, HADS-D, SCL-90-R-SOMS, SEK-27 and work situation, as well as cortisol measures. (p-values are for paired sample t-tests, effect sizes refer to pre-post changes)

From: Mindfulness and compassion-oriented practices at work reduce distress and enhance self-care of palliative care teams: a mixed-method evaluation of an “on the job“ program

  Before the training After the training t (df) p* Cohen’s d
Mean SD Mean SD
MBI (Burnout)
 Exhaustion 14.85 9.07 11.29 7.63 −3.13 (24) .005** 0.41
 Depersonalization 2.72 2.85 2.53 2.80 0.71 (24) .48 0.07
 Personal        
 Accomplishment 39.27 4.88 41.22 4.03 −2.71 (24) .012* 0.43
PSQ (Stress)
 Worries .23 .14 .17 .11 2.39 (25) .025* 0.48
 Tension .39 .22 .26 .14 3.51 (25) .002** 0.69
 Joy .65 .21 .73 .19 −2.25 (25) .033* 0.38
 Demands .43 .23 .36 .16 2.20 (25) .037* 0.33
 Total .35 .18 .27 .12 3.08 (25) .005** 0.52
HADS-D (Anxiety and Depression)
 Anxiety 5.42 2.66 4.31 3.04 2.45 (25) .022* 0.39
 Depression 3.31 2.21 2.77 2.14 1.59 (25) .12 0.25
SCL (t-score)
 Somatization 49.31 8.94 47.50 8.58 1.17 (25) .26 0.21
Emotion Regulation Skills Questionnaire (ERSQ-27)
 Awareness 3.00 0.77 3.32 0.49 −2.87 (24) .008** 0.45
 Clarity 3.17 0.74 3.27 0.61 −1.01 (24) .32 0.15
 Sensations 3.08 0.78 3.12 0.59 −0.24 (24) .82 0.06
 Understanding 3.25 0.73 3.23 0.63 0.26 (24) .80 0.04
 Acceptance 3.07 0.83 3.16 0.65 −0.76 (24) .45 0.12
 Resilience 2.77 0.97 3.16 0.80 −2.47 (24) .021* 0.43
 Self-support 2.87 0.92 3.01 0.77 −0.96 (24) .35 0.17
 Readiness to        
 Confront 2.83 0.71 2.90 0.69 −0.76 (24) .46 0.11
 Regulation 2.73 0.89 2.90 0.65 −1.57 (24) .13 0.20
 Total 2.97 0.66 3.12 0.55 −1.85 (24) .08 0.24
Work situation
 Satisfaction 7.75 1.34 8.19 1.47 −1.63 (25) .117 0.31
 Enforcement 7.83 1.81 8.15 1.46 −1.12 (25) .274 0.2
 Enjoyment 7.62 1.44 8.35 1.06 −3.06 (25) .005** 0.6
CAR, nmol/l
 AUC total 333.68 106.21 367.68 214.97 0.86 (23) .396 0.19
 AUC basal 250.21 103.07 292.15 117.40 −1.01 (23) .323 0.26
 AUC netto 83.47 93.58 75.52 111.69 0.25 (23) .806 0.08
  1. * p = 0.05; ** p = 0.01