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Table 4 Study effects within and between treatment groups

From: When a parent dies – a systematic review of the effects of support programs for parentally bereaved children and their caregivers

Interventions directed to the bereaved children
Intervention Reference and grade of evidence Study population Evaluation design Measure Outcome variable Effect size TG Effect size CG Effect size between groups
sig dz CL % sig dz CL % sig dm (ϕ)
“Bereavement groups for inner-city children” Schilling et al. 1992 [36] 38 children (age 6–12) Pre-test/post-test-design BID Depr. (Parent)
Depr. (Child)
.26
.29
−.22
.21
−59
58
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
IIIC   Evaluation: post treatment ATCD Attitudes and Concepts of Death .01 .52 70 na na na na na
Grief camp “Camp MAGIC” (CG) delayed treatment McClatchey et al. 2009 [31] 100 children (age 6–16) Quasi experimental design UCLA PTSD PTSD-symptoms .08 .33 63 .73 −.05 52 .08 .27
IIB TG = 46 CG = 54 Evaluation: post treatment EGI Childhood Traumatic Grief .00 .73 77 .90 −.02 51 .01 .50
“Writing for recovery” (CG) no treatment Kalantari et al. 2012 [28]
IB
61 children (age 12–18)
TG = 29 CG = 32
RCT
Evaluation: 1 week post treatment
TGIC Traumatic grief .00 1.26 90 .03 −.39 65 .00 1.21
Family-intervention (CG) no treatment Black & Urbanowicz 1985 [40]; 1987 [25]
IIB
83 children (age 0–16)
TG = 38 CG = 45
45 families
TG = 21 CG = 24
RCT
Evaluation: 1 year post treatment
Clinical Interview Behavior
Sleep
Depressed parent
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
.05
.09
.01
(.21)
(.21)
(.33)
Talk about dead parent na na na na na na .04 (.26)
Rutter A
Rutter A
Restless
Nail-biting
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
.01
.03
(.34)
(.28)
School problems na na na na na na .10 (.19)
Family-intervention (CG) no treatment Black & Urbanowicz 1987 [25]
IIB
73 children (age 0–16)
TG = 38 CG = 35
39 families
TG = 21 CG = 18
RCT
Evaluation: 2 years post treatment
Clinical Interview Behavior
Talk dead parent
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
.09
.04
(.28)
(.24)
School
Health
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
.03
.04
(.28)
(.39)
“Parent Guidance Program” (CG) telephone monitoring intervention Christ et al. 2005 [26]
IA
104 families with children (age 7–17)
TG = 79 CG = 25
RCT
Evaluation: 8 and 14 months after parent’s death
CDI
SEI
STAI-S
STAI-T
CBCL-soc
Depression
Self-Esteem
State anxiety
Trait anxiety
Social competence
.00
.00
.00
.00
.29
.56
.64
.89
.61
.17
71
74
81
73
57
.03
.21
.12
.87
.27
.48
.29
.35
.04
−.31
69
61
64
51
62
.53
.36
.12
.31
.32
.14
.28
.44
.43
.36
CBCL-bprob Behavior problem .17 .16 59 .80 −.07 53 .69 .26
POPM-tot Perceived
Parenting
.06 .25 60 .31 −.22 59 .11 .37
“The Family Bereavement Program” (first version) (CG) delayed treatment Sandler et al. 1992 [32]
IB
72 families with 72 children (age 7–17)
TG = 35 CG = 37
RCT
Evaluation: post treatment
CRPBI
PRS
PRS
Par. warmth
Grief discussion
Par. Support
.00
.78
.00
.97
.07
.88
83
53
81
.25
.00
.11
.22
−.70
−.31
59
76
62
.03
.03
.01
.50
.62
.83
“The Family Bereavement Program” (revised version) (CG) self-study program Sandler et al. 2003 [33]
IA
156 families
TG = 90 CG = 66
244 children (age 8–16)
TG = 135 CG = 109
RCT
Evaluation: Posttest and 11 months post treatment
Posttest  
Comp.
GLESC
Comp.
Comp.
AIS
TAS
SPPC
MCPCS
CBCL
CBCL
Pos. parenting
Negative events
Ment. health
Positive coping
Inhibition
Neg. thoughts
Self-esteem
Control belieifs
Internalizing
Externalizing
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
.00
.03
.01
.02
.01
.78
.37
.72
.03
.11
.58a
.43a
.50a
.30a
.48a
.05a
.19a
.06a
.41a
.28a
11-mth  
Comp.
GLESC
Comp.
Comp.
AIS
TAS
SPPC
MCPCS
CBCL
CBCL
Pos. parenting
Negative events
Ment.health
Positive coping
Inhibition
Neg. thoughts
Self-esteem
Control belieifs
Internalizing
Externalizing
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
.03
.11
.10
.20
.06
.18
.16
.00
.61
.19
.39a
.32a
.32a
.18a
.39a
.29a
.27a
.40a
.10a
.24a
“The Family Bereavement Program” (CG) self-study program Schmiege et al. 2006 [37]
IA
156 families
TG = 90 CG = 66
244 children (age 8–16)
TG = 135 CG = 109
RCT
Evaluation: 3 and 11 months post treatment
  3-months  
CMAS-R Anxiety Girls
Anxiety Boys
.08a
.17a
.32a
.23a
59
57
.32a
.04a
.20a
.38a
56
61
.41c
.25c
.11
−.13
CDI Depression Girls
Depression Boys
.10a
.19a
.30a
.22a
58
56
.28a
.37a
.21a
.17a
56
55
.58c
.98c
.11
.06
YSR Externaliz. Girls
Externaliz. Boys
.03a
.08a
.39a
.30a
61
58
.09a
.05a
.34a
.38a
59
61
.36c
.50c
.08
−.03
CBCL Intrenaliz. Girls
Internaliz. Boys
.00a
.00a
.74a
.48a
70
63
.01a
.00a
.53a
.69a
65
69
.88c
.39c
.19
−.16
CBCL Externaliz. Girls
Externaliz. Boys
.00a
.01a
.56a
.43a
65
62
.07a
.00a
.37a
.57a
60
66
.43c
.44c
.23
−.12
  11-months  
CMAS-R Anxiety Girls
Anxiety Boys
.02a
.01a
.43a
.44a
62
62
.80a
.01a
.05a
.48a
51
63
.06c
.73c
.36
.02
CDI Depression Girls
Depression Boys
.02a
.07a
.41a
.32a
62
59
.55a
.05a
.12a
.37
53
60
.16c
.65c
.28
−.01
YSR Externaliz. Girls
Externaliz. Boys
.08a
.27a
.33a
.19a
59
55
.89a
.13a
-.03a
.30a
51
58
.03c
.45c
.36
−.08
CBCL Intrenaliz. Girls
Internaliz. Boys
.00a
.01a
.80a
.47a
72
63
.01a
.00a
.57a
.63a
66
67
.93c
.58c
.20
−.10
CBCL Externaliz. Girls
Externaliz. Boys
.00a
.02a
.55a
.42a
65
62
.32a
.00a
.20a
.69a
56
69
.11c
.86c
.40
−.22
“The Family Bereavement Program” (CG) self-study program Luecken et al. 2010 [29]
IA
139 children
TG = 78 CG = 61 (age 8–16)
RCT
Evaluation: 6 years post treatment
Cortisol Cortisol level before and after a conflict discussion task na na na na na na .03b .39b
“The Family Bereavement Program” (CG) self-study program Sandler et al. 2010 [34]
IA
156 families
TG = 90 CG = 66
RCT
Evaluation: Post-test, 11 months and 6 years post treatment
  Post (3-months)  
TRIG
IGTS
Present grief
Intrusive grief
.19a
.16a
-.16a
.17a
54
55
.09a
.50a
-.23a
.09a
57
53
.72c
.43c
.05
.09
244 children (age 8–16)
TG = 135 CG = 109
  11-months  
TRIG
IGTS
Present grief
Intrusive grief
.69a
.00a
.05a
.47a
51
63
.87a
.12a
-.02a
.21a
51
56
.88c
.06c
.08
.27
  6-years  
TRIG
IGTS
Present grief
Intrusive grief
.00a
.00a
.73a
1.30a
70
82
.00a
.00a
.63a
1.08a
67
78
.75c
.03c
.14
.21
“The Family Bereavement Program” (CG) self-study program Sandler et al. 2010 [35]
IA
140 families
TG = 78 CG = 62
RCT
Evaluation: 6 years post treatment
DISC Compsite Mental Disorder
Externalizing
Internalizing
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
.28b
.02b
.57b
nab
.31b
nab
218 children
TG = 116 CG = 102
RSE
PERI
BDI
Self-esteem
Demoralization
Depression
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
na
.01b
.03b
.04b
.40b
.42b
.40b
  1. Note: TG = Treatment Group; CG = Control Group. Effect size is presented in Cohen’s d and Common Language effect size (CL). The CL effect size indicates that after controlling for individual differences, the likelihood in percent that a person scores a different observed measurement for Mean 1 than for Mean 2. For categorical data ϕ is presented. Numerical data in the publications have been used or recalculated when possible, na = not available, e.g. numbers are missing or calculating not possible based on information in the publication
  2. Abbreviations: AIS active inhibition scale, BID bellevue index of depression, CAS child assessment schedule, CBCL child behavior checklist, CDI children’s depression inventory, CMAS-R children’s manifest anxiety scale-revised, Comp composite scale, CRPBI children’s reports of parental behavior inventory, DISC the diagnostic interview schedule for children, EGI the extended grief inventory, GLESC general life events schedule for children, IGTS intrusive grief thoughts scale, MCPCS multidimensional measure of children’s perceptions of control scale, PERI psychiatric epidemiology research interview, POPM perception of parenting measure, PRS parent report scale, RSE Rosenberg self-esteem scale, SEI self-esteem inventory – short form, SPPC self perception profile for children, STAIC state-trait anxiety inventory for children, STAIY state-trait anxiety inventory for youth, TAS threat appraisal scale, TGIC traumatic grief inventory for children, TRIG Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (Present), UCLA PTSD University of California–Los Angeles Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index for the DSM-IV for Children
  3. aDue to data presented in article calculated as independent t-test, effect size ds
  4. bCohen’s d and p-value as reported by the authors of the study in reference. Only findings with p ≤ .05 were reported
  5. cDue to data presented in article calculated as independent t-test at each time-point (post, follow-up respectively), when controlled for no statistical significant difference in pre-rating