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Table 3 Multivariate regression analysis

From: Bereaved family members’ perceptions of the quality of end-of-life care across four types of inpatient care settings

Independent variables CANHELP Total Characteristics of doctors and nurses Illness management Health services characteristics Communication and decision making Relationships with others Spirituality and meaning
Care setting (ref = palliative)
 ECU −0.10 −0.15 0.04 −0.13 −0.21 −0.06 0.00
 ICU 0.11 0.06 0.32 0.08 0.19 0.06 −0.35
 MCU −0.33* −0.39* −0.30* −0.39* −0.43* −0.08 −0.27*
Care recipient characteristics
 Age (years) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01
 Gender (ref = male) 0.02 0.00 −0.05 0.05 0.04 0.11 0.02
 Diagnosis (cancer versus not)a 0.02 0.04 0.10 0.19 −0.07 0.02 −0.07
Family member characteristics
 Age (years) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.01* 0.00
 Gender (ref = male) −0.10 −0.14 −0.15 −0.03 −0.19* 0.06 0.10
 Employment statusa −0.12 −0.07 −0.14 −0.29* −0.10 −0.09 −0.12
 Relationship to patient
  Husband/wife (ref = ‘other’) −0.01 −0.07 0.09 0.19 −0.01 −0.14 −0.10
  Parent/parent in law (ref = ‘other’) −0.09 −0.03 0.02 0.04 −0.22 −0.22 −0.09
 Provided carea 0.14 0.14 0.13 0.08 0.24* −0.02 0.09
 Lived with care recipienta −0.10 0.03 −0.08 0.03 −0.20 −0.31* −0.02
Psychological variables of family members
 Optimism (possible range of 0 to 4) 0.09 0.05 0.15* 0.03 0.03 0.11 0.23*
 Resilience (possible range of 1 to 7) 0.21* 0.20* 0.18* 0.14* 0.22* 0.25* 0.27*
 Grief (possible range of 1 to 6) 0.01 −0.03 −0.03 0.01 0.00 0.11* 0.11*
R-square 18.90% 11.80% 14.10% 16.20% 15.30% 27.80% 19.50%
  1. Note. Unstandardized regression coefficients. ayes versus no (referent). *p < .05 (bolded values)