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Table 2 Quantitative studies

From: Patient’s and health care provider’s perspectives on music therapy in palliative care – an integrative review

Author Participants Intervention Control Results
Design RCT
 Warth, et al. [3](Germany) N = 84
Mean age 63
Inpatient
MTs × 2
Not patient-centered MT
Listened to a verbal relaxation exercise Subjective improved relaxation, well-being and fatigue-subscale. Increase in high-frequency oscillations of the heart rate. MT was not found to contribute to acute pain reduction.
 Gutgsell, et al. [21] (USA) N = 200
Mean age 56 Inpatient
MTs ×  1, therapist-guided relaxation Relax no instructions Decline of pain
 Clements-Cortes [34] (Canada) N = 40
Age 40–95
Inpatient
MTs Individualized Individualized taped MTs Pain reduction and enhancement of physical comfort.
 Horne-Thompson & Grocke, [22](Australia) N = 25
Age 18–90
Inpatient
MTs ×1 Individualized active and receptive Volunteer visit Reduction in anxiety, pain, tiredness and drowsiness.
No significant effect in a decrease in heart rate.
 Hilliard, [24] (USA) N = 80
Mean age 65
Outpatient
MTs × 2 (− 13) individualized TAU Improved QoL
No significant differences on functional status or length of life.
Pre-Post Design
 Domingo et al. [19] (Spain) N = 68
Mean age 73
Inpatient
MTs × 4 in group individualized music/songwriting TAU
Not by random
Effect emotional distress and well-being.
No significant effect of pain observed.
 Nakayama et al. [20] (Japan) N = 10
Mean age 73
Inpatient
MT Small group with mainly receptive method. No Lowering of salivary cortisol levels
Decreased symptoms of anxiety and depression. No change in fatigue levels
 Gallagher et al. [23] (USA) N = 200
24–87 years Inpatient
MTs ×  1 individualized No Improvements in anxiety, body movement, facial expression, mood, pain, shortness of breath, and verbalizations.
 Krout, [39] (USA) N = 80
Age 38–97
In/out patient
MTs × 1 individualized active and receptive No Effect in observed and self-reported pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation.
  1. MTs Music therapy session, TAU treatment as usual