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Table 2 Quantitative studies

From: Patient’s and health care provider’s perspectives on music therapy in palliative care – an integrative review

Author Participants Intervention Control Results
Design RCT
 Warth, et al. [3](Germany) N = 84
Mean age 63
MTs × 2
Not patient-centered MT
Listened to a verbal relaxation exercise Subjective improved relaxation, well-being and fatigue-subscale. Increase in high-frequency oscillations of the heart rate. MT was not found to contribute to acute pain reduction.
 Gutgsell, et al. [21] (USA) N = 200
Mean age 56 Inpatient
MTs ×  1, therapist-guided relaxation Relax no instructions Decline of pain
 Clements-Cortes [34] (Canada) N = 40
Age 40–95
MTs Individualized Individualized taped MTs Pain reduction and enhancement of physical comfort.
 Horne-Thompson & Grocke, [22](Australia) N = 25
Age 18–90
MTs ×1 Individualized active and receptive Volunteer visit Reduction in anxiety, pain, tiredness and drowsiness.
No significant effect in a decrease in heart rate.
 Hilliard, [24] (USA) N = 80
Mean age 65
MTs × 2 (− 13) individualized TAU Improved QoL
No significant differences on functional status or length of life.
Pre-Post Design
 Domingo et al. [19] (Spain) N = 68
Mean age 73
MTs × 4 in group individualized music/songwriting TAU
Not by random
Effect emotional distress and well-being.
No significant effect of pain observed.
 Nakayama et al. [20] (Japan) N = 10
Mean age 73
MT Small group with mainly receptive method. No Lowering of salivary cortisol levels
Decreased symptoms of anxiety and depression. No change in fatigue levels
 Gallagher et al. [23] (USA) N = 200
24–87 years Inpatient
MTs ×  1 individualized No Improvements in anxiety, body movement, facial expression, mood, pain, shortness of breath, and verbalizations.
 Krout, [39] (USA) N = 80
Age 38–97
In/out patient
MTs × 1 individualized active and receptive No Effect in observed and self-reported pain control, physical comfort, and relaxation.
  1. MTs Music therapy session, TAU treatment as usual