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Table 5 Critical elements of models of care in an Indigenous setting identified from the published, peer-reviewed literature

From: Key features of palliative care service delivery to Indigenous peoples in Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the United States: a comprehensive review

Community Engagement • Community/ local needs identified
• Strong community connection and engagement in decision-making, planning, designing the program/ project
• Community leadership
Education & Training: Providers, Support Workers & Carers • Upskilling staff through training
• Providing training and education to community members (peer-to-peer teaching)
• Culturally-appropriate resources and materials
Culturally Safe Service Delivery Strategy • Palliative Care integrated with cancer care (palliative care is not separated rather included within the cancer treatment continuum, Link to an established Program)
• A team-based whole-of-service approach (Support from all staff)
• Creative, careful realignment of existing health system resource utilisation
• Clinician endorsement is critical
Flexible Organisation/ Program Structure • Sufficient flexible funding
• Stable institution
• Infrastructure (physical environment, Built Environment, accessibility and availability of services)
• Organisational policy
• Partnership with local agencies, hospitals, academic institutions, etc.
Patient-centered Care • Culturally safe care (respect for traditional practices and medicine, respectful of traditional beliefs, providing cultural and spiritual care)
• Delivery of Care (Inter-disciplinary care, multidisciplinary team, coordination of care, outreach services/ home visit, interpreter services)
• Family involvement in care and decision-making, place of death, home visit, outreach services, provide various forms of support, patient empowerment, compassionate care)
Quality Service Delivery • Ongoing evaluation
• Systematic record-keeping to capture progressive data