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Table 1 Participating healthcare organizations

From: Whose job? The staffing of advance care planning support in twelve international healthcare organizations: a qualitative interview study

  Description of organization How organization was identified
United States
 Gundersen Health A physician-led, not-for-profit healthcare system; birthplace of Respecting Choices, an evidence-based ACP model for person-centered decision making. Snowball sampling via Wisconsin Medical Society, and known to the authors through the literature
 Dartmouth-Hitchcock A non-profit, academic health system, providing ACP support using the Honoring Care Decisions ACP programme (based on the Respecting Choices model). Snowball sampling via Gundersen Health
 Wisconsin Medical Society A physician member association supporting 32 participating health organizations to implement the Honoring Choices ACP programme (based on the Respecting Choices model). Known to the authors through an earlier study they led into the economics of ACP
 Sharp Healthcare A not-for-profit, integrated regional health care system, providing ACP support in collaboration with the Coalition for Compassionate Care of California. An academic expert identified through ACPELa made an introduction to a regional coalition organization that, in turn, made an onward introduction to Sharp Healthcare. Sharp Healthcare, and its Transitions program were also known to the authors through the literature
Canada
 Northern Alberta Renal Program (NARP) Renal programme in Edmonton, Alberta, providing integrated ACP support using an approach based on Conversations Matter. Identified directly through a clinician, academic and member of ACPELa
 Fraser Health One of six publicly funded health care regions in British Columbia, providing ACP support in community, acute and residential care based on materials developed provincially and at Fraser Health Authority. Northern Alberta Renal Program (NARP) made an introduction to an academic expert in Alberta who, in turn, made an onward introduction to Fraser Health
Australia
 Austin Health A publicly-funded health service in Melbourne, providing acute, sub-acute, mental health and ambulatory services, providing ACP support using materials developed locally and as part of Advance Care Planning Australia Identified directly through a clinician and member of ACPELa
 Northern Health A publicly-funded provider of acute, sub-acute and ambulatory specialist services in Melbourne, providing ACP support using the ‘A-C-P in three steps’ approach developed within Northern Health. Identified through snowball sampling via Austin Health
 Barwon Health A publicly-funded, large regional health service, providing acute, sub-acute, elderly care, community health and mental health services, with ACP support delivered across secondary and primary care using materials, including MyValues, developed in Barwon Health. Identified through snowball sampling via Austin Health
 Albany Health A regional primary and secondary healthcare system, providing ACP support using forms developed by the Western Australian government and piloting systems for communication and access of ACP documents. Identified through an academic and member of ACPELa and through a contact identified by the authors in an earlier study they led into the economics of ACP
New Zealand
 The Canterbury Initiative A District Health Board initiative, delivering change and quality improvement initiatives across community, primary and secondary care and providing ACP support using materials developed by the Canterbury Initiative and by the National ACP Cooperative, New Zealand. A clinician and member of ACPELa made an introduction to the National ACP Cooperative who, in turn, made an onward introduction to the Canterbury Initiative
 Auckland District Health Board A regional health authority overseeing community, primary and secondary care, providing ACP support using material developed by the National ACP Cooperative, New Zealand Identified through a clinician and member of ACPELa
  1. aThe International Society of Advance Care Planning and End of Life Care