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Table 1 Structurally vulnerable participants’ characteristics (n = 25)

From: “Just too busy living in the moment and surviving”: barriers to accessing health care for structurally vulnerable populations at end-of-life

Characteristic Number of Participants
Gender
 Men 16
 Women 9
Age a
 Average age 59
 Age range 19–81
Ethnicity b
 White 13
 Indigenous 8
 African Canadian 1
Sexual orientation b
 Heterosexual 20
 Gay/Lesbian 2
Relationship status b
 Single 8
 Married or living in common law relationship 3
 Divorced or separated 9
 Widowed 2
Highest level of education a
 University 2
 College diploma 1
 Some college (including trade school) 4
 High school 6
 Some high school 4
 Middle school (grade 8) 2
 Elementary school or less 2
Housing type on entry of the study
 Social or public housing 11
 Market rental (with roommates and/or financial supplements) 8
 Transitional housing (incl. Hotel/motel) 2
 Homeless (e.g., shelter, boat, hospital, etc.) 4
Main source of incomea
 Provincial Disability Benefit 13
 Pension 6
 Social assistance 1
 Employment Insurance Benefit 1
Primary life-limiting condition of concern
 Cancer 15
 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) 2
 Diabetes 3
 Unknown c 5
Other health conditions
 Arthritis 10
 Cardiovascular disease 6
 HIV/AIDS 2
 Hepatitis C 6
Mental health status
 Self-reported mental illness 7
 Mental illness identified by health service provider (including undiagnosed but suspected) 7
Access to health care
 Had regular medical doctor 23
Care sites most commonly accessed
 Primary care clinic 18
 Other medical clinic/hospital 7
Access to palliative care d
 Over 2 weeks of palliative care 5
 2 weeks and under of palliative care 5
 No access to palliative care 3
Deaths
 Number of deaths during study period 13
Place of death
 Home 8
 --supported housing 6
 --market housing 2
 In-patient palliative care unit 5
Accompaniment at death
 Alone 5
 With family member 6
 With service provider 2
  1. aBased on 21 participants. Three structurally vulnerable participants engaged in observations but died prior to completing a demographic form. One participant did not answer this question
  2. bBased on 22 participants. Three structurally vulnerable participants engaged in observations but died prior to completing a demographic form
  3. cFive participants were not identified (either self or by service providers) as living with a life-limiting condition