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Table 1 Patient characteristics - retrospective chart review

From: Optimal treatment of opioid induced constipation in daily clinical practice – an observational study

   Total
N = 327 (%)
Fentanyl Maintenance
N = 131 (%)
Oxycodon maintenance
N = 90 (%)
P (fentanyl vs. oxycodone)
Age mean (SD) 63 (12) 64 (11) 63 (12) 0,368
Sex Male 146 (45) 64 (49) 41 (46)  
Female 181 (55) 67 (51) 49 (54) 0,629
Cancer type Gastro-intestinal 110 (34) 43 (33) 26 (29)  
Breast 54 (17) 13 (10) 19 (21)  
Genito-urethral 62 (19) 23 (20) 26 (29)  
Skin 15 (5) 7 (5) 5 (6)  
Lung 1 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0)  
Head&Neck 53 (16) 33 (25) 5 (6)  
Brain 3 (1) 1 (1) 0 (0)  
Sarcoma 6 (2) 2 (2) 2 (2)  
Other 23 (7) 5 (4) 7 (8) 0,005*
Treatment intention Curative 71 (22) 37 (28) 9 (10)  
Palliative 256 (78) 94 (72) 81 (90) 0,001*
Current Treatment Follow-up 7 (2) 3 (2) 1 (1)  
Watchfull waiting 22 (7) 7 (5) 5 (6)  
Chemotherapy 90 (28) 32 (24) 28 (31)  
Radiotherapy 15 (5) 7 (5) 5 (6)  
Chemoradiotherapy 38 (12) 25 (19) 3 (3)  
Targetted therapy 51 (16) 17 (13) 17 (19)  
Best supportive care 81 (25) 33 (25) 24 (27)  
Other 23 (7) 7 (5) 7 (8) 0,032*
ECOG performance status 0 14 (4) 3 (2) 7 (8)  
1 110 (34) 40 (31) 36 (40)  
2 67 (21) 22 (17) 20 (22)  
3 29 (9) 14 (11) 11 (12)  
4 17 (5) 6 (5) 1 (1)  
Unknown 90 (28) 46 (35) 15 (17) 0,264
Contributing factors Peritoneal tumor depositions 52 (16) 21 (16) 13 (14) 0,748
Intestinal metastasis 19 (6) 8 (6) 3 (3) 0,352
Involvement of other abdominal organs 115 (35) 45 (34) 34 (38) 0,602
Hypercalcemia 21 (6) 13 (10) 6 (7) 0,239
Reduced mobility 116 (36) 47 (36) 34 (38) 0,773
Intake failure 71 (22) 41 (31) 9 (10) < 0,001*
Constipating co-medication 75 (23) 30 (23) 18 (20) 0,607
Abdominal innervation problems 11 (3) 1 (1) 7 (8) 0,006*
Bowel disease 4 (1) 1 (1) 1 (1) 0,789
Depression 3 (1) 2 (2) 0 (0) 0,239
Pain Scorea NRS 0–10, mean (SD) 4,0 (6,0) 4,0 (5,0) 5,0 (6,5) 0,948
Opioid dosesb Maintenance dose, median (IQR) 60 (29–120) 60 (29–120) 40 (40–80) 0,006*
Rescue dosec 20 (3–40) 23 (10–50) 20 (0–40) 0,259
Rescue opioid subtypes No rescue opioid 36 (11) 9 (7) 6 (7)  
Buprenorfine 14 (4) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Fentanyl 24 (7) 17 (13) 3 (3)  
Methadon 2 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Morphine 57 (17) 34 (26) 5 (6)  
Oxycodon 185 (57) 71 (54) 76 (84)  
Tramadol 5 (2) 0 (0) 0 (0)  
Other 4 (1) 0 (0) 0 (0) < 0,001*
  1. * marks the statistically significant results
  2. aPain score at a numerical rating scale (NRS) from 0 to 10 at the moment the opioid was prescribed (N = 115)
  3. bOral morphine equivalent daily doses (MEDD) at the moment of opioid prescription
  4. cRescue opioid doses, calculated for patients with a known rescue frequency (total N = 135, fentanyl N = 64, oxycodone N = 30)