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Table 3 Opioid Induced Constipation

From: Optimal treatment of opioid induced constipation in daily clinical practice – an observational study

Opioid maintenance typea N= Note on laxation pattern
N (%)b,c
Morphine dose (MEDD)d
median (IQR)
ConstipationeN (%) MEDDd,f median (IQR) Opioid Induced Constipationg,h N (%) MEDDi
median (IQR)
Admission for OICj
N (%)k
MEDDl
median (IQR)
No maintenance opioid 94 77 (82) 0 (0) 12 (13) 0 (0) 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (1) 0
Buprenorfine 16 16 (100) 105 (31–180) 5 (31) 24 (17–98) 3 (19) 30 (17–120)m 2 (13) 54 (17–90)o
Fentanyl 110 86 (78) 89 (60–150) 25 (23) 89 (60–180) 18 (16) 89 (60–180) 11 (10) 180 (60–180)
Methadon 3 2 (67) 60 (60–240)m 2 (67) 120 (60–240)m 1 (33) 240 (0) 0 (0) n.a.
Morphine 5 3 (60) 60 (40–96) 3 (60) 60 (40–96)m 2 (40) 68 (40–96)m 3 (60) 60 (40–80)o
Oxycodon 81 64 (79) 40 (40–80) 19 (23) 40 (40–80) 12 (15) 40 (40–80) 5 (6) 60 (40–140)
Tramadol 14 7 (50) 30 (20–40) 1 (7) 20 (0) 1 (7) 20 (0) 0 (0) n.a.
Other 4 2 (50) 7 (5–10)m 1 (25) n.a.n 1 (25) n.a.n 0 (0) n.a.
Total 327 257 (79) 60 (40–120) 68 (21) 60 (40–120) 39 (12) 60 (40–120) 22 (7) 70 (40–180)
  1. aOpioid maintenance type at note on laxation pattern or at prescription (if no note was found in the patient records)
  2. bNumber of patients in each subtype for whom a note was made at their laxation pattern, P = 0.931
  3. cPercentage of patients with a note on their laxation pattern for each opioid subtype
  4. dOral Morphine Equivalent Daily Dose (MEDD) in milligrams
  5. eNumber of patients with a diagnosis of constipation in each opioid subtype, P = 0.030
  6. fThe difference between the fentanyl group and the oxycodone subgroup was statistically significant, P = 0.043
  7. gNumber of patients with a diagnosis of opioid induced constipation (OIC), P = 0.006
  8. hPercentage of patients with a diagnosis of opioid induced constipation for each opioid subtype
  9. iThe difference in MEDD of patients using fentanyl or oxycodone was not statistically significant, P = 0.231
  10. jOpioid subtype the papient was using at admission for OIC
  11. kPercentage of patients admitted for OIC relative to the number of patients using this opioid subtype at the moment of the opioid prescription included in this analysis
  12. lOral Morphine Equivalent Daily Dose (MEDD) at the moment of admission for OIC; IQR = inter quartile range
  13. mRange instead of interquartile range, due to low number of patients using this opioid subtype
  14. nThe MEDD could not be calculated because the conversion rate for this opioid subtype is unknown
  15. oRange in stead of inter quartile range, due to the low number of patients using this opioid subtype