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Table 1 Characteristics of the included studies

From: Towards appropriate information provision for and decision-making with patients with limited health literacy in hospital-based palliative care in Western countries: a scoping review into available communication strategies and tools for healthcare providers

  First author, year, country Healthcare provider Patients Setting/aim Study design Face-to-face - and/or written & online strategies/toolsa Other
1 Ache, 2009, USA [46] Healthcare providers in general/not specified Patients with low-literacy in palliative and end of life care Internet websites of 5 nationally prominent US-based palliative care organisations were searched. A convenience sample of 15 patient education materials per palliative care organization was drawn (n = 75). Review of patient information materials from the internet Written & online strategies
2 Chou, 2015, USA [19] Healthcare providers in general/not specified Patients with limited health literacy in palliative care Using a multilevel ecological framework to highlight connections between health literacy and palliative care across a wide variety of health areas, including: palliative care utilization; communication between providers, patients and other caregivers; self-care and caregiving outside the clinical setting Overview of available strategies and tools to address health literacy in palliative care, derived from previous studies (Book chapter; no information about numbers of patients/ providers/ materials included) Face-to-face, written & online strategies and tools Also strategies and tools at patient, organizational, community and national policy level
3 Fage-Butler, 2015, USA [47] Healthcare providers in general/ not specified Patient and family centred care, with a focus on health literacy in palliative care Three types of written & online palliative care communication were described: one-to one: provider responds to needs of individual patient (email); one-to-many: provider communicates to a group (end-of-life leaflets); many-to-many: a bank of providers share advice or responses to a group (online patient forums) Overview of available written and online strategies to support the needs of palliative care patients, derived from previous studies (Book chapter; no information about numbers of patients/ providers/ materials included) Written & online strategies
4 Kidd, 2014, New Zealand [45] Healthcare providers in primary and specialist care. Also formal and informal community care providers Maori patients and their extended family in palliative care, with a focus on health literacy To understand health literacy in palliative care for Maori, their clinicians and community delivery of these services Qualitative study based on interviews (n = 21 patients in palliative specialist care and their extended family; n = 6 providers/key informants); focus groups (n = 54 health professionals from different disciplines); written resource analysis (n = 42 written resources from participating palliative care providers); literature review (n = 27 articles included, most qualitative studies) Face-to-face, written & online strategies
5 Rawlings, 2015, Australia [44] Healthcare providers in general, focus on nurses Patients with limited health literacy in palliative care Australian website (CareSearch) for palliative care patients and providers, with evidence based, easy to read and understand information. Clinical update & case study (review of CareSearch website) in palliative care (no information about numbers of patients/ providers/ materials included) Face-to-face, written & online strategies Also strategies at patient and organizational level
  1. aTools/strategies refer to interventions for healthcare providers for communicating with LHL patients in palliative care, including strategies and tools to support information provision and (shared) decision-making