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Table 4 Characteristics of studies

From: When is hastened death considered suicide? A systematically conducted literature review about palliative care professionals’ experiences where assisted dying is legal

Reference Participants Study Methods Data Year Research Focus Setting Terminology Used in Study
 Anquinet L et al. (2013) [33] Two groups of physicians (n = 8) and two groups of nurses (n = 13) Qualitative focus groups 2010 Similarities and differences between the practice of continuous sedation until death and the practice of euthanasia. Homecare and hospital setting-palliative care unit support team Physician Assisted Death; Euthanasia
 Cohen J et al. (2012) [45] Physicians 480-Flanders; 305-Wallonia Postal survey 2008 and 2009 Cultural differences between Walloon and Flemish physicians affecting euthanasia practice Unspecified Euthanasia
 Dierckx De Casterlé, et al. (2010) [46] 18 nurses Qualitative in-depth interviews 2005–2006 Nursing care for patients requesting euthanasia in general hospitals in Flanders, Belgium Included palliative care units Euthanasia
 Inghelbrecht, E., et al. (2010) [47] 1678 nurses Second phase of two-phase postal survey 2007–2008 Nurses involvement inconsistent in decisions about euthanasia or drugs to end a patients’ life, and nurses administer life-ending drugs even though it is not regulated Homecare, care homes, hospital Euthanasia by patients’ request; Administration of life ending medications without patients’ explicit request
 Meeussen, K., et al. (2011) [48] 205 GPs Structured phone survey 2005–2006 Investigated how many patients expressed a wish for euthanasia, documentation of these requests, experiences with these requests, and how it was handled Focused on patients who died at home Euthanasia
 Beuthin, R., et al. (2018) [49] 17 nurses Qualitative interviews 2016 Explored nurses experiences of MAiD Hospital, hospice, home settings Medical Assistance in Dying (MAiD), euthanasia, assisted suicide
 Dees, M. K., et al. (2013) [50] 32 cases, 31 relatives, 28 physicians Qualitative interviews 2008–2009 Explores decision-making process in cases where patients request euthanasia Homes or physicians’ offices Euthanasia
 Georges, J. J., et al. (2008) [51] 30 GPs Qualitative in-depth interviews 2002–2003 Describes experiences of general practitioners (GPs) in Netherlands dealing with a request for euthanasia from a terminally ill patient. Unspecified Euthanasia
 Francke, A. L., et al. (2016) [52] 587 respondents (65%) Nurses and CNAs Postal survey 2011 To give insight into Dutch nursing staff’s attitudes and involvement regarding euthanasia Unspecified Euthanasia
 Norwood, F. (2007) [53] 10 physicians included in study Ethnographic study: Foucauldian discourse 2001 Euthanasia, general practice, and end-of-life discourse in the Netherlands Home Euthanasia
 Pasman, H. R., et al. (2013) [54] 11 physicians and 9 patients, 3 relatives Qualitative Interviews 2005–2007 What happens after request for euthanasia is refused Unspecified Euthanasia or Physician Assisted Suicide (EAS)
 Snijdewind, M. C., et al. (2014) [55] 28 physicians 26 relatives Qualitative in-depth interviews November 2011–April 2012 According to the physicians and relatives, what are the characteristics of the complexities that can arise from the moment someone requests EAS? Unspecified Physician Assisted Suicide; Euthanasia
 Van Bruchem-van de Scheur, G., et al. (2007) [35] 500 district nurses-86% response rate. 81.6% (408) used for analysis Postal survey 2003 Euthanasia and physician assisted suicide in the Dutch home care sector: the role of the district nurse 55 home care organisations Physician Assisted Suicide;
 Van Bruchem-van de Scheur, G.,et al. (2008) [34] 1509 nurses; 1179 responses analysed (78.1%) Telephone survey 2003 The role of nurses in euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide in the Netherlands Hospital, nursing homes and home care Physician Assisted Suicide; Euthanasia
 Van Marwijk, H., et al. (2007) [56] 22 physicians Qualitative, four focus groups 2003 Impact of euthanasia on primary care physicians in the Netherlands Primary care Euthanasia; Assisted Suicide
 Otte, I. C., et al. (2016) [57] 23 General Practitioners (GPs) Qualitative interviews 2012–2013 Barriers to professional communication about Physician Assisted Suicide Unspecified Physician Assisted Suicide
 Gamondi, C., et al. (2017) [28] 23 palliative care physicians Qualitative study 2015 Physician responses to assisted suicide requests Unspecified Assisted Suicide
United States
 Carlson, B, et al. 2005 [43] 50 out of 77 hospice chaplains (65% response) Postal survey 2003 Attitudes and experiences of hospice chaplains with patients requesting physician assisted suicide Hospice home care Physician-Assisted Suicide (PAS); Oregon Death with Dignity Act (ODDA)
 Chin, et al. 1999 [58] 14 physicians Qualitative interviews Report of 1998 data First year’s experience with legalised assisted suicide in Oregon Unspecified Physician-Assisted Suicide
 Clymin, J., et al. 2012 [59] 582 out of 7500 nurses Qualitative component of email survey 2010 Nurses knowledge of the Death with Dignity Act Unspecified Death With Dignity Act (DWDA)
Physician Assisted Death (PAD)
 Dobscha, SK, et al. 2004 [36] 35 physicians Qualitative semi-structured interviews 2000 Physicians responses to requests for assisted suicide Unspecified DWDA;
Assisted Suicide
 Ganzini, L., et al. 2003 [37] 35 physicians Qualitative in-depth interviews 2000 Oregon physicians’ perceptions of patients who request assisted suicide Unspecified Assisted Suicide
 Ganzini, L., et al. 2000 [39] 2649 of 4053 physicians (65% response) Postal survey 1999 Physicians’ experiences with the Oregon Death with Dignity Act Unspecified Oregon Death with Dignity Act
 Ganzini, L., et al. 2001 [38] 2641 physicians (65% response) Postal survey 1999 Physicians’ attitudes/experiences with end-of-life care since passage of the Oregon Death with Dignity Act Unspecified DWDA
 Ganzini, L., et al. 2002 [40] 307 nurses and social workers of 545 (72–78% response) Postal survey 2001 Experiences of nurses and social workers with hospice patients who requested suicide assistance Hospice home care Assisted Suicide
 Ganzini, L., et al. 2003 [32] 307 nurses of 429 (72% response) Postal survey 2001 Nurses’ experiences with hospice patients who refuse food and fluids to hasten death Hospice home care Voluntary Refusal of Food and Fluids (VRFF) Physician Assisted Suicide (PAS)
 Harvath, et al. 2006 [41] 20 nurses and social workers Qualitative interviews Not clearly stated Dilemmas encountered by hospice workers when patients wish to hasten death Hospice home care Physician Assisted Suicide; Hastened Death
 Miller, L. et al. 2004 [42] 306 nurses and 85 social workers (72–78% response) Postal survey 2001 Attitudes/experiences of Oregon hospice nurses and social workers regarding assisted suicide Hospice home care Assisted Suicide; Oregon Death with Dignity Act (ODDA)
 Norton, E. M. & Miller, P. J. 2012 [44] 9 social workers Focus group Since passing of the law Social workers discuss DWDA Hospice home care DWDA
International (Netherlands and Oregon)
 Voorhees, J. R., et al. (2014) [61] 36 physicians Qualitative semi-structured interviews 2007–2008 Physicians’ experiences in the United States and the Netherlands No Physician-Assisted Dying (PAD)