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Table 4 Results of the matrix used for analysis

From: Two faces of the same coin: a qualitative study of patients’ and carers’ coexistence with chronic breathlessness associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Patients & CarersPatientCarer
 1. Shrinking world
 Breathlessness shrinks the physical and relational world available to patients and carers and increases the time they spend together
• Restriction of daily activities
• Restriction of independence
• Good days and bad days
• Restriction of their own daily activities
• Describe patients have good days and bad days
• Hard to disconnect from the carer’s role
2. Mutual adaptation
 Patient and carers work individually and together to create optimal functioning for both
• Keep as active as possible
• Try to avoid over-exertion
• Some push to the limit
• Take over some tasks
• Slow down
• Step in to prevent perceived over-exertion
 3. Co-management
 Patient and carers have active and complementary roles in managing breathlessness
• Have an active role in managing breathlessness
• Work with the carer to overcome breathlessness
• Have an active role in managing breathlessness
• Degree of participation depends on patients’ limitations
• Step in situations of acute breathlessness
 4. Emotional coping
 Emotional coping with breathlessness is difficult for patients, but harder for carers
• Annoyance
• Frustration
• Frustration
• Resentment
• Feeling trapped
• Giving up part of their identity
 5. Meaning in the face of death
 Sense of meaning created by the relationship between patients and carers
• See death as natural (no fear)
• Find meaning in their relationship with the carer
• Fear patients’ death and their future
• Try to bring joy and happiness to the patient