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Table 2 Study variables by hospital release status (discharged or deceased)

From: Characterizing patients issued DNR orders who are ultimately discharged alive: a retrospective observational study in Japan

 DischargedDeceasedComparison of  Discharged vs Deceased
Timing of DNR order: Early
Patients, number781 525  
Age, years85.8(10.1)81.5(11.5)**
Patients aged ≥85 years519(66.5)236(45.0)**
Female patients501(64.1)266(50.7)**
Non-cancer patients661(84.6)293(55.8)**
Internal medicine patients736(94.2)443(84.4)**
Patients who received invasive LST125(16.0)165(31.4)**
Patients with restrictions on invasive LST540(69.1)337(64.2)ns
Hospital length of stay, days38.9(42.3)29.5(32.7)**
Timing of DNR order: Mid-term
Patients, number416 806  
Age, years81.7(10.1)75.7(12.0)**
Patients aged ≥85 years199(47.8)185(23.0)**
Female patients213(51.2)328(40.7)**
Non-cancer patients316(76.0)355(44.0)**
Internal medicine patients359(86.3)593(73.6)**
Patients who received invasive LST150(36.1)398(49.4)**
Patients with restrictions on invasive LST280(67.3)443(55.0)**
Hospital length of stay, days90.9(108.9)62.5(67.9)**
Timing of DNR order: Late
Patients, number31 438  
Age, years82.9(13.1)75.7(13.4)**
Patients aged ≥85 years20(64.5)127(29.0)**
Female patients16(51.6)182(41.6)ns
Non-cancer patients22(71.0)260(59.4)ns
Internal medicine patients26(83.9)331(75.6)ns
Patients who received invasive LST2(6.5)233(53.2)**
Patients with restrictions on invasive LST13(41.9)245(55.9)ns
Hospital length of stay, days9.3(16.8)21.7(35.4)ns
  1. DNR: do not resuscitate, LST: life-sustaining treatment, IC: informed consent. Age and hospital length of stay: mean (standard deviation). †) Age and hospital length of stay were analyzed using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test, while other variables were analyzed using Fisher’s exact probability test. Holm’s method was used to adjust for multiplicity. **: p < 0.01, ns: not significant