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Table 1 Plain language description of the modified Rankin Scale

From: Development and usability testing of Understanding Stroke, a tailored life-sustaining treatment decision support tool for stroke surrogate decision makers

Modified Rankin Scale scorea Scale Description
0–2 Mild Disability or Better • May have some mild symptoms of stroke, such as
 - Weakness
 - Numbness
 - Changes in thinking or speaking
• Able to live on their own and manage daily activities (bathing, shopping, preparing or getting meals and managing finances)
3 Moderate Disability • Not able to do all of the activities they could do before the stroke
• May have difficulty thinking or speaking
• May need help with some daily activities (bathing, shopping, preparing or getting meals, managing finances)
• Able to walk without help from another person, but may need a cane or a walker
4 Moderately Severe Disability • Need help with some daily activities (eating, bathing, dressing, toileting)
• May have more severe difficulty thinking or speaking
• Not able to walk without help from another person
• May need a wheelchair
• Not able to live alone
5 Severe Disability • Need help with most or all activities (eating, bathing, walking)
• Not able to sit up in bed without help
• Not able to move from a bed to a chair without help
• Do not have full control of bladder or bowel function
• Not able to live alone
• Need constant nursing care and usually live in a long-term nursing facility
  1. aThe mRS column is not shown in Understanding Stroke