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Table 1 Primary providers, places, and services in each type of LTCa services covered by Japan’s LTCIb

From: Place of death associated with types of long-term care services near the end-of-life for home-dwelling older people in Japan: a pooled cross-sectional study

Type of LTC Provider Place Service
1. Services for home-dwelling recipients
(i) In-home services
 for care Care workers Recipients’ homes Care workers regularly assist in caring for recipients with essential daily routine activities.
 for nursing Nurses or therapists Recipients’ homes Nurses or therapists regularly provide nursing or rehabilitation to care recipients.
 for medical support Physicians, nurses, pharmacists, dieticians, dentists, or dental hygienists Recipients’ homes Medical professionals provide information on the recipients’ medical condition and give medical advice to care workers, care recipients, or informal caregivers with referral forms or by parol.
 for bathing Nurses and care workers Recipients’ homes Nurses and care workers regularly assist with bathing to care recipients.
 for rehabilitation Therapists Recipients’ homes Therapists regularly offer rehabilitation to care recipients.
 for renting welfare equipment Specialized consultees Recipients’ homes Consultees design a plan for renting welfare equipment, including wheelchairs, care beds, devices for postural changes on the bed, arm rails, walkers, sticks, sensing devices against wandering, and transfer aids. Moreover, they even lend and maintain them.
(ii) Day services
 for care Care workers and nurses Day service facilities Care recipients regularly stay at the day service facilities during the daytime to prevent the social isolation of care recipients and reduce the burden of informal caregivers.
 for rehabilitation Therapists, nurses, and care workers LTC health facilities, hospitals, or clinics Care recipients regularly receive rehabilitation during the daytime to improve and maintain their physical and psychological condition.
(iii) Short-stay services
 for care Care workers LTC welfare facilities Care recipients stay at LTC welfare facilities for one day to one month to reduce the burden of informal caregivers and maintain the physical and psychological conditions of the recipients.
 for care with medical services Medical professions and care workers LTC health or medical facilities, hospitals, and clinics with beds Care recipients stay at the facilities with medical care for one day to one month to reduce the burden of informal caregivers and maintain the medical condition of recipients.
2. Services for residents at LTC facilities and nursing homes
 at LTC welfare facilities Care workers and nurses LTC welfare facilities The facilities provide a place for recipients who have difficulties in living at home due to a high degree of care needed.
 at LTC health facilities Care workers, physicians, and nurses LTC health facilities The facilities provide a place for rehabilitation to care recipients.
 at LTC medical facilities Physicians and nurses LTC medical facilities The facilities offer an LTC with medical treatments to care recipients. Hospitals and clinics with beds run the facilities.
 at qualified nursing homes Care workers and nurses Nursing homes Qualified nursing homes, which fulfill the required government facility criteria, provide a place for recipients who have difficulty living at home.
  1. a Long-term care
  2. b Long-term care insurance