Skip to main content

Table 2 Characteristics of LTCa beneficiaries who passed away in different places in Japan

From: Place of death associated with types of long-term care services near the end-of-life for home-dwelling older people in Japan: a pooled cross-sectional study

   Place of death
   Other places
Total Home Hospitals and clinics LTC facilitiesb and qualified nursing homes Othersc
Number of death, n (%) 2,035,657 (100) 282,812 (100) 1,721,399 (100) 18,522 (100) 12,924 (100)
Number of death by the year, n (%)
2008 316,830 (15.6) 45,079 (15.9) 268,426 (15.6) 1730 (9.3) 1595 (12.3)
2009 316,871 (15.6) 43,889 (15.5) 269,295 (15.6) 1976 (10.7) 1711 (13.2)
2010 334,882 (16.5) 45,777 (16.2) 284,717 (16.5) 2509 (13.5) 1879 (14.5)
2011 350,997 (17.2) 47,818 (16.9) 297,725 (17.3) 3190 (17.2) 2264 (17.5)
2012 372,326 (18.3) 52,566 (18.6) 312,764 (18.2) 4286 (23.1) 2710 (21.0)
2013 343,751 (16.9) 47,683 (16.9) 288,472 (16.8) 4831 (26.1) 2765 (21.4)
Median (IQRd) age, years 85 (79, 90) 86 (80, 92) 84 (79, 90) 88 (83, 93) 86 (81, 92)
Gender, n (%)
Male 997,574 (49.0) 126,307 (44.7) 858,742 (49.9) 7268 (39.2) 5257 (40.7)
Female 1,038,083 (51.0) 156,505 (55.3) 862,657 (50.1) 11,254 (60.8) 7667 (59.3)
Degree of care need, n (%)
Low 175,819 (8.6) 24,269 (8.6) 150,450 (8.7) 357 (1.9) 743 (5.7)
Moderate 527,942 (25.9) 69,688 (24.6) 453,521 (26.3) 2356 (12.7) 2377 (18.4)
High 1,331,896 (65.4) 188,855 (66.8) 1,117,428 (64.9) 15,809 (85.4) 9804 (75.9)
Presence of a spouse, n (%)
Present 908,572 (44.6) 118,531 (41.9) 781,326 (45.4) 4916 (26.5) 3799 (29.4)
Unmarried 64,827 (3.2) 7838 (2.8) 55,166 (3.2) 1140 (6.2) 683 (5.3)
Bereavement 979,905 (48.1) 146,488 (51.8) 814,331 (47.3) 11,390 (61.5) 7696 (59.5)
Divorce 82,353 (4.0) 9955 (3.5) 70,576 (4.1) 1076 (5.8) 746 (5.8)
Underlying cause of death, n (%)
Cancer 570,699 (28.0) 80,674 (28.5) 483,663 (28.1) 3154 (17.0) 3208 (24.8)
Cardiovascular 331,027 (16.3) 70,576 (25.0) 253,270 (14.7) 4260 (23.0) 2921 (22.6)
Pneumonia 264,472 (13.0) 11,526 (4.1) 250,787 (14.6) 1384 (7.5) 775 (6.0)
Cerebrovascular 221,564 (10.9) 27,378 (9.7) 190,681 (11.1) 2105 (11.4) 1400 (10.8)
Senility 96,846 (4.8) 37,952 (13.4) 54,396 (3.2) 2867 (15.5) 1631 (12.6)
Others 551,049 (27.1) 54,706 (19.3) 488,602 (28.4) 4752 (25.7) 2989 (23.1)
Use of the LTC services for home-dwelling recipientse, n (%)
 No use 1,098,458 (54.0) 25,202 (8.9) 1,071,575 (62.3) 617 (3.3) 1064 (8.2)
 In-home services 807,785 (39.7) 240,542 (85.1) 541,951 (31.5) 14,840 (80.1) 10,452 (80.9)
for care 397,297 (19.5) 113,952 (40.3) 264,960 (15.4) 11,506 (62.1) 6879 (53.2)
for nursing 232,192 (11.4) 89,635 (31.7) 135,650 (7.9) 3739 (20.2) 3168 (24.5)
for medical support 170,541 (8.4) 80,216 (28.4) 78,873 (4.6) 6731 (36.3) 4721 (36.5)
for bath 140,820 (6.9) 69,864 (24.7) 68,364 (4.0) 1025 (5.5) 1567 (12.1)
for rehabilitation 21,958 (1.1) 5936 (2.1) 15,454 (0.9) 316 (1.7) 252 (1.9)
for renting welfare equipment 669,750 (32.9) 211,148 (74.7) 438,150 (25.5) 11,719 (63.3) 8733 (67.6)
 Day services 385,573 (18.9) 81,188 (28.7) 294,447 (17.1) 5714 (30.8) 4224 (32.7)
for care 312,656 (15.4) 68,173 (24.1) 235,631 (13.7) 5079 (27.4) 3773 (29.2)
for rehabilitation 84,424 (4.1) 14,954 (5.3) 68,198 (4.0) 760 (4.1) 512 (4.0)
Short-stay services 148,701 (7.3) 30,310 (10.7) 110,636 (6.4) 5873 (31.7) 1882 (14.6)
for care 127,525 (6.3) 26,084 (9.2) 94,630 (5.5) 5046 (27.2) 1765 (13.7)
for care with medical services 23,394 (1.1) 4620 (1.6) 17,677 (1.0) 953 (5.1) 144 (1.1)
Combined use of each type of LTC services for home-dwelling recipientse, n (%)
In-home services and day services 280,256 (13.8) 64,871 (22.9) 207,022 (12.0) 5052 (27.3) 3311 (25.6)
In-home services and short-stay services 107,377 (5.3) 27,023 (9.6) 75,939 (4.4) 3164 (17.1) 1251 (9.7)
Day services and short-stay services 83,338 (4.1) 19,194 (6.8) 61,680 (3.6) 1777 (9.6) 687 (5.3)
In-home, day service, and short-stay service 66,111 (3.2) 16,658 (5.9) 47,431 (2.8) 1471 (7.9) 551 (4.3)
  1. aLong-term care
  2. bLTC facilities include LTC welfare, health, and medical facilities
  3. cOthers indicate the place of death except for home, hospitals, clinics with beds, LTC facilities, and qualified nursing homes. (e.g., day services’ facilities or outdoors)
  4. dInterquartile range
  5. eLTC services for home-dwelling recipients were used during/in the month of death