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Table 1 Variable domain 1. Family characteristics. Sample characteristics of the interviewed family members (n = 209) and analysis of the individual variables in Domain 1. Family characteristics (subsystem Family member -Closest family) in relation to the family members’ sense of support within the closest family (dependent variable)

From: Sense of support within the family: a cross-sectional study of family members in palliative home care

Variable domain (relating subsystem or suprasystem) Variable (range of response alternatives/index) %
responses
Description
(mean [SD];range) or percent)
Wald valuesa for individual variable Relation-ship
I. Family member characteristics
(SUBSYSTEM Family member-Closest family)
Demographics: Age (in years) 99 60.5 [13.3];(21–87) 2.34  
Gender: male/female 99 45%/55% 0.02  
Married or partner/ single 100 89%/ 11% 0.13  
Living conditions
Alone 99 11% 5.94 pos
with husband, wife or cohabitant 99 84% 2.71  
with children 99 12% 4.53 neg
with siblings or others 99 3% 0.29  
Have children 100 88% 1.19  
Native born in Sweden 100 92% 1.68  
Education (highest level completed) (1–6) 100   0.11  
1(No formal)/ 2(Basic education only)/   3%/ 21%/   
3(High school)/ 4(Vocational education/   22%/ 20%/   
5(University< 3 years)/ 6(University 3 years or more)   9%/ 23%   
Relation to the patient
Husband, wife or partner   64% 0.92  
Child   31% 3.26  
Otherb   6%   
Main occupation
Employed 100 50% 2.57  
Caring for family member with reimbursement 100 10% 0.48  
Caring for family member without reimbursement 100 7% 0.43  
Age pensioner 100 40% 6.86 pos
Health-related quality of life
EQ 5D index (−0.594 (worst possible) – 1.00 (best possible)) 100 0.74[0.23];(−0.02–1) 1.98  
Mobility (1 (no problems - 3 (severe problems)) 100 1.16[0.38];(1–3) 0.19  
Self-care (1 (no problems - 3 (severe problems)) 100 1.02[0.14];(1–2) 2.60  
Usual activities (1 (no problems - 3 (severe problems)) 100 1.10[0.32];(1–3) 0.02  
Pain/Discomfort (1 (no problems - 3 (severe problems)) 100 1.68[0.59];(1–3) 0.40  
Anxiety/Depression (1 (no problems - 3 (severe problems)) 100 1.68[0.58];(1–3) 7.08 neg
General health (from SF-36; 1(excellent) - 5 (bad)) 100 2.79[1.11];(1–5) 2.67  
General Quality of life (from WHO QOL 100; 1(very bad) - 5 (very good)) 100 3.66[0.90];(1–5) 5.90 pos
Situation as family member to a severely ill person
Type of support the family member provided to the ill person
Health care 100 63% 1.89  
Physical, personal care 99 48% 0.67  
Transport 100 74% 0.87  
Emotional, social support 100 98% 0.64  
Support in home and household 100 80% 0.27  
Support with financial management 100 59% 0.53  
Financial support 100 19% 0.23  
Organise care and support 100 69% 0.00  
Extent of support the family member provided to the ill person (1–6) 98   0.49  
1(Around-the-clock)/ 2(Always daytime)/ 3(Several times per day   32%/ 10%/ 20%   
4(Once per day)/ 5(Some time per week)/ 6(No need)   11%/ 7%/ 5%/ 13%   
Family members’ perception of being a family caregiver     
Negative impact (COPEc_NEG) (4–28) 100 10.48[3.02];(7–22) 12.50 neg
Positive value (COPE_POS) (4–16) 99 14.08[1.81];(6–16) 12.52 pos
Quality of support (COPE_Support) (4–16) 99 12.58[2.60];(5–16) 22.12 pos
Possibility of respite if family member needed a break (1–3) 100    
(1(no)/ 2(yes, with some difficulty)/ 3(yes, easy))   15%/ 43%/ 42%/ 16.39 pos
Possibility of respite if family member turned ill (1–3) 100    
(1(no)/ 2(yes, with some difficulty)/ 3(yes, easy))   21%/ 37%/ 42% 6.47 pos
Attachment security:
Anxiety dimension (ECR-M16c; 1–7) 99 2.81[1.05];(1–6.25) 6.27 neg
Avoidance dimension (ECR-M16; 1–7) 98 2.82[1.11];(1–6.25) 2.59  
Stress and coping
Nervousness and stress (from PSSc; 1 (never) - 5 (very often)) 100 3.0[1.18];(1–5) 6.71 neg
Too many problems to manage (from PSS; 1 (never) - 5 (very often)) 100 2.19[1.11];(1–5) 2.74  
Worry about private economy (1 (never) - 5 (very often)) 100 1.70[1.11];(1–5) 0.23  
Self-efficacy (from GSEc; 1 (fully disagree) - 4 (fully agree)) 100 3.28[0.67];(1–4) 2,37  
Religious or existential faith that helps (1 (fully disagree) - 4 (fully agree)) 100 2.26[1.08];(1–4) 1.83  
  1. aWald =4 is approximately equivalent with p = 0.05; Wald = 6 is approximately equivalent with p = 0.01
  2. bToo diverse in data (merged categories) to be meaningful to compute
  3. cSEC-R, The sense of security in care-Relatives’ Evaluation instrument; COPE, assessment of negative impact, positive value and quality of support of caregiving in informal carers of older people; ECR-M16, Experiences in Close Relationships scale; EQ-5D, EuroQol-5D; PSS, Perceived Stress Scale; GSE, General Self-Efficacy Scale