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Table 1 Data Collection Rationale

From: Role of norms in variation in cancer centers’ end-of-life quality: qualitative case study protocol

Data Collection Method Rationale
Direct observation To learn about EOL care for minority patients with advanced cancer, specifically how it is influenced by:
1. Organizational and provider practice norms
2. Provider decision making heuristics
3. Patient and family expectations
Semi-structured interviews
 Leadership To probe organization-level:
1. Norms, including resources, programs, and policies
2. Site-specific workflows and scheduling logistics
 Providers To explore individual-level:
1. Motivations, decision heuristics, and/or rationalizations
2. Unconscious beliefs and assumptions that structure advanced cancer decision making, using case vignettes to prime mental models
 Patients, family members, caregivers To probe individual-level:
1. Preferences for cancer care
2. Past, current, and future decisions related to cancer care
 Artifact collection To learn how the organization standardizes workflows, marketing/informational materials, orientation guidelines, quality reporting, and communication documents used in the cancer center, and how this impacts:
1. Local organizational and provider practice norms
2. Provider decision making heuristics
3. Patient and family expectations