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Table 2 Surrogate decision-making items with significant differences in ranking scores among three perspectives

From: Factors underlying surrogate medical decision-making in middle eastern and east Asian women: a Q-methodology study

Item All Only ME Only EA
“28.What is in the best interests of patient” N>S>P   N>S>P
“26.Fear of loss of loved one” S>N & P S>P & N S>N & P
“25.Feeling of guilt because not trying everything possible” S & N>P S & N>P  
“8.What surrogate would have wanted if in similar situation” S>N S>N & P  
“10.Surrogate own wishes for patient” S>N S>P & N  
“14.Surrogate burden due to taking care of patient or disliked outcome” P>N & S P>N P>N>S
“23.Surrogate needs” P>N>S P & N>S P & N>S
“9.Family needs” P>S>N P>S & N P & S>N
“20.Reaching family agreement to maintain family cohesion” S & P>N P & S>N  
“27.Family burden due to taking care of patient or disliked outcome” P>N & S P>S P>N & S
  1. Items’ ranks were compared among the N, P, and S perspectives (norm perception, patient, and surrogate decision maker perspectives, respectively) in all respondents (All), only Middle Eastern (ME) respondents, and only East Asian (EA) respondents. Items with significant (p < 0.01) rank differences are shown, grouped according to the underlying domain. P values ranged from 0.006 to < 0.001