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Table 3 Surrogate decision-making items with significant differences in ranking scores between ME and EA women

From: Factors underlying surrogate medical decision-making in middle eastern and east Asian women: a Q-methodology study

Items N-perspective P-perspective S-perspective
“15.What patient would have wanted based on past wishes”    x   x  
“13.Religious or spiritual beliefs of patient”   x     
“4.What promotes the life patient has valued”   x     x
“2.What continues the life patient has led” x      
“28.What is in the best interests of patient”    x   x  
“12.Patient pain and suffering” x   x    
“22.Medical facts” x   x   x  
“3.Trying everything possible to save patient” x      
“8.What surrogate would have wanted if in similar situation”      x  
“10.Surrogate own wishes for patient” x   x   x  
“14.Surrogate burden due to taking care of patient or disliked outcome”      x  
“23.Surrogate needs”   x   x   
“17.Financial concerns”     x   x
“9.Family needs”   x   x   x
“20.Reaching family agreement to maintain family cohesion”   x     x
“1.Effect of caring for patient on patients with same disease”       x
“5.Effect of caring for patient on all patients in society”     x   x
  1. Items’ ranks were compared between Middle Eastern (ME) and East Asian (EA) women per perspective. N-, P-, and S- perspectives indicate norm perception, patient, and surrogate decision-maker perspectives, respectively. Items with significant (p < 0.01) rank differences are shown, grouped according to the underlying domain. P values ranged from 0.008 to < 0.001. “x” indicates the group with higher mean rank