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Table 13 A Priori Codes from Hudson Conceptual Model of Family Caregivers for Palliative Care

From: Comparison of the experience of caregiving at end of life or in hastened death: a narrative synthesis review

Event Change in environment or patient status, e.g., new information, worsening of symptoms, return home from hospital
Appraisal Determining whether event is relevant to caregiver or patient’s well-being
Threat Event poses a threat to patient or caregiver well-being that may be outside of caregiver’s capacity to address
Challenge Event poses a potentially surmountable obstacle within caregiver’s capacity
Harm Event leads to direct harm to patient or caregiver
Benign Event is unlikely to change patient or caregiver status or may improve it
Irrelevant Event has no bearing on patient or caregiver status
Coping
 Problem-focused coping Acting on oneself or the environment, such as seeking information
 Emotion-focused coping Changing the relationship to the environment, or changing the relational meaning of the experience to avoid stress
Event Outcome
 Favourable resolution Outcome is consistent with goals and values
 Unfavourable resolution Outcome is contrary to goals and values, such as harm
 No resolution Situation persists without opportunity for change
Emotion Outcome
 Positive emotion Favourable resolution leads to satisfaction, end of coping
 Distress Unfavourable resolution of event leads to distress
 Meaning-based coping Unfavourable or no resolution leads to adapting one’s mental state to be able to respond to an event
 Positive reappraisal Finding meaning in the event based on beliefs and values
 Revised goals Adjusting goals for situation to obtain control
 Spiritual beliefs Activating spiritual beliefs to fuel emotion- or problem-based functions
 Positive events A satisfactory outcome to the event leads to positive appraisal
Variables  
 Preparedness How ready the caregiver perceives being, regardless of actual skill or knowledge
 Mastery Sense of control and enhanced self-esteem through overcoming a stressor, development of new abilities, very broadly (not task-specific)
 Competence Perception of self as adequate at caregiving specifically
 Self-efficacy Belief in one’s own ability to manage a situation. Not an inherent trait but event- and task-specific
 Anxiety, depression and distress Negative psychological effects of ongoing caregiving demands
 Social support Interactions with friends, family, coworkers. Can be positive or negative, or absent.
 Information Seeking information to assess problems and solutions. Successful information seeking facilitates more effective coping.
 Rewards Satisfaction, positive emotional gains from caregiving, such as receiving love from patient, seeing patient content, feeling accomplished
 Meaningfulness Caregiver sees role as worthwhile investment or challenge
 Positive emotions Feelings of happiness, satisfaction, recognition as opposed to stress
 Optimism Inherent trait that buffers caregiver against strains of caregiving
 Mutuality Gratitude and meaning and idea of reciprocity in relationship with patient, closeness
 Respite Activities or interactions outside of caregiving that reduce stress and allow caregiver to recognise his/her own needs and interests
 Cultural factors Expectations about familial roles that shape expectations of caregiving and influence stress and coping (e.g., duty or honour to care for spouse or parent)
 Caregiver burden and health Physical, emotional, psychological, financial, or social problems related to caregiving (e.g., lack of sleep, numbed emotions, isolation)
 Choice and commitment Making a conscious choice to take on caregiving role
 Patient’s disease, dependency, and illness duration Patient’s physical needs, psychological aspects of illness, and own recognition and outlook on illness
 Caregiver age, gender, socioeconomic status Unclear but possible relationships in response to caregiving based on relationship status, age (physical ability), economics
Additional codes
 External influences Legal, economic, or other structural factors that shape the environment in which care is provided overall and the caregiver’s options for providing care (e.g., insurance, sick leave)
 Grief Anticipatory or posthumous grieving