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Table 4 Comparisons of the CSDS scores of participants with different characteristics (Mean ± SD)

From: Development and validation of the cancer symptoms discrimination scale: a cross-sectional survey of students in Yunnan, China

General characteristics N The CSDS score P
Gender male 917 6.81 ± 5.23 0.077
female 2690 6.49 ± 4.57
Age ≤18 years 1566 6.82 ± 4.81 0.008
>18 years 2023 6.39 ± 4.68
Nationality Han 2710 6.48 ± 4.70 0.061
other minorities 899 6.83 ± 4.88
School School A 1411 6.16 ± 4.78 <0.001
School B 753 6.15 ± 4.35
School C 750 6.50 ± 4.46
School D 299 7.34 ± 4.78
School E 397 8.38 ± 5.32
Major clinic medicine 1182 5.85 ± 4.43 <0.001
nursing 1017 6.92 ± 4.77
other medical majors 262 6.88 ± 5.28
non-medical majors 1149 6.92 ± 4.82
Grade freshman 1380 6.33 ± 4.48 <0.001
sophomore 1438 6.99 ± 5.01
junior 791 6.21 ± 4.65
Current schooling degree secondary vocational school 668 7.88 ± 5.14 <0.001
specialized vocational college 879 6.75 ± 4.67
university/college 2054 6.07 ± 4.55
Residence rural area 2337 6.78 ± 4.72 <0.001
urban area 1250 6.16 ± 4.72
Family income ≤ 3500 yuan 1638 6.68 ± 4.73 0.623
>3500 yuan 1613 6.60 ± 4.78
Number of family members ≤3 people 820 6.03 ± 4.73 <0.001
≥4 people 2764 6.73 ± 4.74
Guardian’s education Primary school and below 745 6.86 ± 4.85 <0.001
middle school 1656 6.80 ± 4.71
high school/ secondary vocational school 698 6.37 ± 4.78
specialized vocational college 232 5.55 ± 4.37
university/college and above 251 5.67 ± 4.66
Self-rated health well 1975 6.25 ± 4.66 <0.001
not well 1627 6.97 ± 4.82
Having chronic diseases or NOT no 3392 6.56 ± 4.71 0.427
yes 208 6.83 ± 5.28
History of cancer in close relatives no 3208 6.63 ± 4.77 0.027
yes 399 6.08 ± 4.56
History of cancer in close friends no 3426 6.57 ± 4.73 0.926
yes 182 6.54 ± 5.04
History of care for cancer patients no 3367 6.64 ± 4.75 0.001
yes 231 5.59 ± 4.52
Family relation harmonious 3062 6.47 ± 4.67 0.002
inharmonious 546 7.15 ± 5.12
Personality introversive 590 6.56 ± 4.66 0.957
non-introversive 3011 6.57 ± 4.77
Ways of cancer knowledge acquisition ≤3 1797 5.94 ± 4.34 <0.001
≥4 1809 7.19 ± 5.03
Understanding of cancer knowledge very 658 5.77 ± 4.75 <0.001
fair 2317 6.63 ± 4.67
little 628 7.19 ± 4.93
SELF-perceived cancer danger so so 1411 6.23 ± 4.44 0.001
very much 2196 6.79 ± 4.92
Degree of cancer fear very much 2036 7.10 ± 4.88 <0.001
not so much 1569 5.88 ± 4.47
Perception of cancer contagiousness not contagious 1992 6.22 ± 4.58 <0.001
not sure 958 6.99 ± 4.94
contagious 654 7.02 ± 4.85