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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of patients divided by ceiling of care decisions

From: Advanced care planning during the COVID-19 pandemic: ceiling of care decisions and their implications for observational data

  All patients (n = 409) Level 1 (n = 208) Level 2 (n = 75) Level 3(n = 126) p-value
Demographics
 Age (years) 73·1 ± 15·3 81·9 ± 9·4 75·4 ± 9·9 57·6 ± 12·8 < 0·001
 Male sex [n(%)] 211 (54) 103 (49·5) 43 (57·3) 75 (59·5) 0·17
 BMI (kg/m2) 26·3 (22·1–30·8) 23·2 (20·5–27·1) 27·6 (22·0–31·8) 29·4 (25·8–34·0) < 0·001
 BAME [n(%)] 56 (13·7) 12 (5·8) 8 (10·7) 36 (28·6) < 0·001
 Clinical Frailty Scale 5 (3–6) 6 (5–7) 4 (3–5) 2 (2–3) < 0·001
Co-morbidities
 HFrEF [n(%)] 51 (12·5) 34 (16·3) 13 (17·3) 4 (3·2) 0·001
 IHD [n(%)] 62 (15·2) 39 (18·8) 15 (20·0) 8 (6·3) 0·004
 Hypertension [n(%)] 191 (46·7) 99 (47·6) 44 (58·7) 48 (38·1) 0·017
 AF [n(%)] 87 (21·3) 60 (28·8) 17 (22·7) 10 (7·9) < 0·001
 Diabetes mellitus [n(%)] 125 (30·6) 67 (32·2) 32 (42·7) 26 (20·6) 0·004
 Stroke/TIA [n(%)] 48 (11·7) 34 (16·3) 10 (13·3) 4 (3·2) 0·001
 CKD [n(%)] 103 (25·2) 69 (33·2) 29 (38·7) 5 (4·0) < 0·001
 COPD [n(%)] 64 (15·6) 41 (19·7) 16 (21·3) 7 (5·6) 0·001
 Malignancy [n(%)] 33 (8·1) 22 (10·6) 7 (9·3) 4 (3·2) 0·050
Medications
 ACEi [n(%)] 74 (18·1) 30 (14·4) 23 (30·7) 21 (16·7) 0·007
 ARB [n(%)] 32 (7·8) 10 (4·8) 8 (10·7) 14 (11·1) 0·069
 BB [n(%)] 99 (24·2) 61 (29·3) 22 (29·3) 16 (12·7) 0·001
 CCB [n(%)] 68 (16·6) 27 (13·0) 20 (26·7) 21 (16·7) 0·024
 Loop diuretic [n(%)] 64 (15·6) 50 (24·0) 12 (16·0) 2 (1·6) < 0·001
 MRA [n(%)] 16 (3·9) 11 (5·3) 3 (4·0) 2 (1·6) 0·24
 Statin [n(%)] 171 (41·8) 85 (40·4) 49 (65·3) 38 (30·2) < 0·001
 Antiplatelet [n(%)] 105 (25·7) 57 (27·4) 23 (30·7) 25 (19·8) 0·17
 Anticoagulant [n(%)] 57 (13·9) 42 (20·2) 11 (14·7) 4 (3·2) < 0·001
 Metformin [n(%)] 50 (12·2) 23 (11·1) 14 (18·7) 13 (10·3) 0·17
 Sulphonylurea [n(%)] 20 (4·9) 5 (2·4) 8 (10·7) 7 (5·6) 0·016
 Corticosteroid [n(%)] 21 (5·1) 12 (5·8) 3 (4·0) 6 (4·8) 0·82
 Immunosuppression [n(%)] 21 (5·1) 9 (4·3) 5 (6·7) 7 (5·6) 0·71
  1. BMI body mass index, BAME Black Asian and minority ethnic, BMI body mass index, HFrEF heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, IHD ischaemic heart disease, AF atrial fibrillation, CKD chronic kidney disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ACEi angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, BB beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, CCB calcium channel blocker, MRA mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist