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Table 5 Baseline clinical characteristics of patients divided by those who were alive or had died during the study period

From: Advanced care planning during the COVID-19 pandemic: ceiling of care decisions and their implications for observational data

  All patients (n = 485) Alive (n = 326) Dead (n = 159) p-value
Demographics
 Age (years) 71·6 ± 16·3 68·4 ± 17·4 78·1 ± 11·5 < 0·001
 Male sex [n(%)] 259 (53·4) 168 (51·5) 91 (57·3) 0·24
 BMI (kg/m2) 26·3 (22·1–30·8) 26·7 (22·2–31·4) 25·5 (21·9–29·9) 0·13
 BAME [n(%)] 73 (15·4) 59 (18·6) 14 (8·9) 0·006
 Clinical Frailty Scale 5 (3–6) 3 (2–6) 6 (3–7) < 0·001
Co-morbidities
 HFrEF [n(%)] 59 (12·2) 31 (9·5) 28 (17·6) 0·010
 IHD [n(%)] 69 (14·2) 46 (14·1) 23 (14·5) 0·92
 Hypertension [n(%)] 222 (45·8) 155 (47·5) 67 (42·1) 0·26
 AF [n(%)] 97 (20·0) 52 (16·0) 45 (28·3) 0·001
 Diabetes mellitus [n(%)] 147 (30·3) 90 (27·6) 57 (35·8) 0·064
 Stroke/TIA [n(%)] 53 (10·9) 32 (9·8) 21 (13·2) 0·26
 CKD [n(%)] 119 (24·5) 71 (21·8) 48 (30·2) 0·043
 COPD [n(%)] 69 (14·2) 37 (11·3) 32 (20·1) 0·009
 Malignancy [n(%)] 37 (7·6) 23 (7·1) 14 (8·8) 0·50
Medications
 ACEi [n(%)] 84 (17·3) 57 (17·5) 27 (17·0) 0·89
 ARB [n(%)] 41 (8·5) 31 (9·5) 10 (6·3) 0·23
 BB [n(%)] 113 (23·3) 75 (23·0) 38 (23·9) 0·83
 CCB [n(%)] 80 (16·5) 57 (17·5) 23 (14·5) 0·40
 Loop diuretic [n(%)] 74 (15·3) 47 (14·4) 27 (17·0) 0·46
 MRA [n(%)] 18 (3·7) 12 (3·7) 6 (3·8) 0·96
 Statin [n(%)] 200 (41·2) 136 (41·7) 64 (40·3) 0·76
 Antiplatelet [n(%)] 115 (23·7) 75 (23·0) 40 (25·2) 0·60
 Anticoagulant [n(%)] 67 (13·8) 38 (11·7) 29 (18·2) 0·049
 Metformin [n(%)] 61 (12·6) 39 (12·0) 22 (13·8) 0·56
 Sulphonylurea [n(%)] 23 (4·7) 18 (5·7) 5 (3·2) 0·23
 Corticosteroid [n(%)] 24 (4·9) 14 (4·3) 10 (6·4) 0·34
 Immunosuppression [n(%)] 22 (4·5) 13 (4·0) 9 (5·7) 0·41
  1. BMI body mass index, BAME Black Asian and minority ethnic, BMI body mass index, HFrEF heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, IHD ischaemic heart disease, AF atrial fibrillation, CKD chronic kidney disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ACEi angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, BB beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, CCB calcium channel blocker, MRA mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist