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Table 2 Anthropometric evaluation, body composition and nutritional status of older patients with cancer in palliative care

From: Effect of chocolate on older patients with cancer in palliative care: a randomised controlled study

VARIABLES STUDY BASELINE END OF STUDY
Mean ± standard deviation Mean ± standard deviation
CG IG1 IG2 CG IG1 IG2
  n = 15 n = 16 n = 15 n = 15 n = 15 n = 15
MNA Screening
 Score (mean ± standard deviation) 11.2 ± 1.4δ 9.5 ± 2.4β 10.5 ± 1.8 11.6 ± 0.6 10.9 ± 1.2 11 ± 1.5
 Nutritional status n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
 Normal 10 (66.7) 9 (56.2) 7 (46.7) 10 (66.7) 8 (53.3) 9 (60.0)
 At risk of malnutrition 5 (33.3) 3 (18.7) 7 (46.7) 5 (33.3) 7 (46.7) 6 (40.0)
 Malnourished 0 (0) 4 (25.0) 1 (6.7) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
MNA Total Assessment
 Score (mean ± standard deviation) 24.7 ± 1.8α 22.6 ± 3.9 23.9 ± 3.1 25.4 ± 1.5 24.7 ± 2.3 25.1 ± 2.5
 Nutritional status n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
 Normal 11 (73.3) 9 (60.0%) 9 (60.0%) 12 (80.0) 10 (66.7) 13 (86.7)
 At risk of malnutrition 4 (26.7) 5 (33.3) 5 (33.3) 3 (20.0) 5 (33.3) 2 (13.3)
 Malnourished 0 (0) 2 (13.3) 1 (6.7) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Anthropometric evaluation
 Body mass index (Kg/m2) 29.3 ± 4.5* 26.2 ± 4.0 26.1 ± 3.7 29.3 ± 4.4** 26.3 ± 3.5 26.3 ± 3.8
 Arm circumference (cm) 32.4 ± 3.2 30.6 ± 3.5 29.8 ± 3.5 32.2 ± 3.4 30.7 ± 2.8 30.1 ± 3.2
 Calf circumference (cm) 37.5 ± 3.0 36.9 ± 3.9 37.5 ± 2.8 37.5 ± 3.1 37.2 ± 3.4 37.3 ± 3.2
Body composition by deuterium
 Total body water (%) 49.3 ± 7.0 48.9 ± 8.1 47.8 ± 7.0 51.5 ± 9.4 48.5 ± 7.4 48.9 ± 5.4
 Fat mass (%) 32.7 ± 9.6 33.2 ± 11.1 34.7 ± 9.6 29.6 ± 12.8 33.7 ± 10.1 33.2 ± 7.3
 Lean mass (%) 67.3 ± 9.4 66.8 ± 11.1 65.3 ± 9.6 70.4 ± 12.8 66.3 ± 10.1 66.8 ± 7.3
  1. CG control group, IG1 intervention group 1 (chocolate with 55% cocoa), IG2 intervention group 2 (white chocolate), n number, % percentage, Kg Kilogram, MNA Mini Nutritional Assessment
  2. δ p < 0.01 vs. IG1; α p = 0.04 vs. IG1; β p < 0.01 baseline vs. end; ∞ p = 0.04 baseline vs. end; * p = 0.04 vs. IG1 and IG2; ** p = 0.03 vs. IG1