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Table 1 Characteristics of cancer and non-cancer VNS patients

From: Predictors of dying at home for patients receiving nursing services in Japan: A retrospective study comparing cancer and non-cancer deaths

  Cancer Non-cancer  
  1664 2511 p-value
  n % n %  
Cause of death      
   Cancer 1664 100    
   Old age    539 21.5  
   Heart disease    504 20.1  
   Pneumonia    481 19.2  
   Cerebrovascular disease    215 8.6  
   Others    772 30.7  
Place of death      
   Home 701 42.1 1229 48.9 < 0.001
   Hospital 963 57.9 1282 51.1  
Age at death 76.3 ± 11.0 84.1 ± 10.0 < 0.001
Gender      
   Male 993 59.7 1199 47.7 < 0.001
   Female 671 40.3 1312 52.3  
ADL dependence      
   J (Almost independent) 220 13.2 136 5.4 < 0.001
   A (Home bound) 259 15.6 335 13.3  
   B (Chair bound) 446 26.7 604 24.1  
   C (Completely bedbound) 678 40.7 1388 55.3  
Cognitive impairment      
   Independent 946 56.9 567 22.6 < 0.001
   I (Almost independent) 319 19.2 536 21.3  
   II (Occasional monitoring) 160 9.6 399 15.9  
   III (Daily care assistance) 120 7.2 416 16.6  
   IV (Continuous daily care assistance) 90 5.4 398 15.9  
   M (Special professional care) 29 1.8 195 7.8  
Patient's preference for site of death      
   Home 810 48.7 843 33.6 < 0.001
   Hospital 207 12.4 145 5.8  
   Unknown 647 38.9 1523 60.7  
Family's preference for site of death      
   Home 700 42.1 1073 42.7 < 0.001
   Hospital 634 38.1 578 23.0  
   Unknown 330 19.8 860 34.2  
Family caregiver      
   None/present only at night 270 16.2 483 19.2 0.013
   Present at all times 1394 83.8 2028 80.8  
Type of insurance      
   Health insurance 1052 63.2 491 19.6 < 0.001
   Long term care insurance 612 36.8 2020 80.4  
Duration of VNS services      
   25 percentile 14 days 37 days < 0.001
   50 percentile 40 days 161 days  
   75 percentile 126 days 639 days  
Use of 24-hour VNS services      
   Yes 1410 84.7 2025 80.6 < 0.001
Where physician is based      
   Hospital 819 49.2 982 39.1 < 0.001
   Clinic 812 48.8 1450 57.7  
Use of home help services      
   Yes 547 32.9 1413 56.3 < 0.001
ADL and cognition      
   Severely impaired in both ADL and cognition 94 5.7 510 20.3 < 0.001
   Severely impaired in ADL, but not severely in cognition 584 35.1 878 35.0  
   Not severely impaired in ADL, but severely in cognition 25 1.5 81 3.2  
   Neither severely impaired in ADL nor in cognition 900 54.1 995 39.6  
Patient's and family's preference for death at home      
   Both prefer at home 553 33.2 613 24.4 < 0.001
   Only the patient prefers at home 260 15.6 230 9.2  
   Only the family prefers at home 147 8.9 460 18.3  
   Neither prefers at home 704 42.3 1208 48.1  
  1. Missing responses have not been listed so that the total does not add to 100%.