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Table 3 Risk factors associated with depressive symptoms (DRS 3+) comparison of multiple imputation analyses models

From: Prevalence and risk factors of depressive symptoms in a Canadian palliative home care population: a cross-sectional study

Independent variable Model with CHESSb(n = 5144) Pooled odds ratio (Pooled 95% confidence limit) Model with Prognosis (n = 5144) Pooled odds ratios (Pooled 95% confidence limit) Model with CHESSband prognostic awareness (n = 2547) Pooled odds ratios (Pooled 95% confidence limit)
Life satisfaction a    
Low 3.01 (2.37-3.82) 2.58 (1.95-3.42) 3.62 (2.70-4.85)
High Reference Reference Reference
CHESS b or Prognosis    
- Imminent (days) - 1.97 (1.32-2.94) -
2+ - < 6 weeks 2.122 (1.42-3.18) 1.47 (1.13-1.91) 1.71 (1.05-2.80)g
0-1 -6 + weeks, < 6mths Reference Reference Reference
Sleep disorders c    
Severe 2.56 (2.05-3.19) 2.67 (2.03-3.52) 2.56 (1.93-3.39)
Moderate 1.56 (2.06-1.18) 1.82 (1.31-2.53) 1.35 (0.94-1.96)
Minimal Reference Reference Reference
Pain scale    
2+ 1.73 (1.35-2.22) 1.69 (1.25-2.28) 2.09 (1.52-2.87)
0-1 Reference Reference Reference
Signs of caregiver distress    
Yes 2.01 (1.62-2.51) 1.71 (1.29-2.26) 1.41 (1.08-1.85)
No Reference Reference Reference
Gender    
Female 1.37 (1.11-1.68) 1.47 (1.14-1.90) 1.41 (1.09-1.81)
Male Reference Reference Reference
Cognitive impairment    
CPSd 2+ 1.45 (1.13-1.87) 1.71 (1.12-2.62) 1.39 (1.04-1.85)
0-1 Reference Reference Reference
Gastrointestinal symptoms    
Moderate-Severe 1.27 (1.03-1.55) 1.37 (1.06-1.76) N/Se
Minimal Reference Reference  
# Co-morbidities    
5+ N/Se 1.79 (1.24-2.59) N/Se
3-4   1.17 (0.90-1.51)  
0-2   Reference  
Supportive family    
No strong family support N/Se N/Se 1.99 (1.20-3.30)
Strong family support    Reference
Goodness of fit    
C statistic (ROC curve) 0.77 (0.75-0.77)f 0.75 (0.74-0.76)f 0.76 (0.75-0.76)f
Hosmer & Lemeshow -χ 2 5.27(1.5-14.1)f 7.89 (2.2-16.9)f 9.25 (3.0-16.9)f
-p 0.73 (0.08-0.99)f 0.49 (0.03-0.98)f 0.37 (0.03-0.93)f
-df 8 (8-8)f 8 (8-8)f 8 (8-8)f
  1. a“High” life satisfaction indicates that the patient has all 5 of the following conditions present: a sense of completion, a sense of progress towards completion, acceptance of the situation, inner strengths that can be encouraged/nurtured AND a positive outlook. “Low” life satisfaction” indicates that one or more of the 5 conditions are absent in the patient.
  2. bCHESS = Changes in Health and End-Stage Disease Signs and Symptoms.
  3. c“Sleep disorders” is a composite (summative) measure based on two items: too little sleep (5 severity levels ranging from 0 to 4) and too much sleep (5 severity levels ranging from 0 to 4). “Severe” sleep disorders represent scores of 4+, “moderate” are scores of 2 or 3, and “minimal” are scores of 0 or 1.
  4. dCPS = Cognitive Performance Scale.
  5. eN/S = Not significant at alpha = 0.05 level.
  6. fMean (Minimum-Maximum).
  7. gAssumes a CHESS cutoff of 3+ versus <3 (to improve discriminatory power in this smaller sample focused on patients with prognosis < 6 months).