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Table 3 Psychotherapy Interventions

From: Bereavement care interventions: a systematic review

Type Format Pop CG RA Num TSL (days) DT Key Outcome Measures Article
Cognitive-behavioral Individual Senior Y N 58/NR 120–180 70 days; 4 sessions Mastery (Personal Mastery Scale); Well-being (MHI subscales, ABS Subscale, PERI self-esteem); Distress (PERI Demoralization Scales, MHI subscales) Reich & Zautra, 1989
  Individual Senior N NA 4/4 540–730 98 days; 14–18 sessions Distress (SUDS); Grief (ICG); Depression (BDI); Anxiety (BAI) Harkness, Shear, et al, 2002**
  Individual Adult Y Y 30/25 >90 35 days; 10 sessions Avoidance/Intrusion (IES); Anxiety (SCL-90); Depression (SCL-90); Mood (POMS) Lange, van de Ven, et al, 2001
  Individual Adult Y Y-NE 26/14 180–7300 70 days; 6 sessions Depression (Wakefield, BDI); Physical Symptoms (Mawson et al, 1981); Fear (FQ); Grief (TRIG); Avoidance (Bereavement Avoidance Tasks) Sireling, Cohen, & Marks, 1988
  Group Adult Y Y-NE 261/147 46–229 84 days; 8 sessions Mental Distress (BSI, GSI); PTS Symptoms (TES); Grief (GES); Physical Health (HHB); Marital Strain (DAS) Murphy, Johnson, et al, 1998 Murphy, 1997
  Group Adult Y Y-NE 110/80 ~730 28 days; 8 sessions Coping and Adaptation (TAT) Balk, Lampe, et al, 1998
  Group Adult Y N 38/21 90–750 70 days; 10 sessions Treatment Expectancy (Expectancy Scale); Depression (BDI); Avoidance, Anxiety (Social Anxiety and Distress Scale); Enjoyability (Pleasant Events Scale); Life Satisfaction (Life Satisfaction Scale) Walls & Meyers, 1985
  Group Adult N NA 8/8 >30 56 days; 8 sessions Avoidance/Intrusion (IES); Depression (BDI, SCL-90-R); Anxiety (SCL-90-R, STAI); Grief (GRI); Distress (PERI Demoralization) Sikkema, Kalichman, et al, 1995****
  Group Child Y UC 19/18 <730 NR Behavior (BRIC-S, BRIC-H); Depression (DSRS); Grief (BP) Hilliard, 2001
Psycho-dynamic Individual Senior Y Y 228 ~60 <180 days; Unlimited sessions Number of Office Visits, Types of Illnesses Gerber, Wiener, Battin, et al, 1975
  Individual Senior Y Y-NE 33/30 90–1170 14 days; 4 sessions Mental Distress (BSI); Depression (GDS); Hopelessness (GHS); Avoidance/Intrusion (IES); Mood (PANAS) Segal, Bogaards, et al, 1999
  Individual Adult Y Y 66/56 <49 90 days; up to 9 sessions General Health(general health questionnaire) Raphael, 1977
  Individual Adult Y N 72/63 60–462 12–20 sessions Avoidance/Intrusion (IES-A, IES-I); Depression (SCL-90); Anxiety (SCL-90); Total Pathology (SCL-90); Stress-Intrusion (SRRS); Neurotic Symptoms (BPRS) Horowitz, Weiss, et al, 1984
  Individual Adult N Y-NE 12/6 365–3650 196 days Depression (Wakefield); Grief (TRIG) Phobic Avoidance (FQ); Hostility/Anger/Guilt (HAG); Attitude to self and deceased (author-created scales); Avoidance (Bereavement Avoidance Tasks); Physical Symptoms (Maddison & Viola, 1968); Compulsive Behavior (Compulsive Activity Checklist); Social Adjustment (Watson & Marks, 1971) Mawson, Marks, et al, 1981
  Individual Adult N NA 1/1 <180 112 days; 10 sessions Grief (Grief Scale); Coping (CRI) Orton, 1994
  Group Senior Y Y 150/117 <365–7300 540 days; 6 sessions Depression (BDI); Socialization (RSAS) Constantino, 1988*****
Psycho-dynamic Group Adult Y Y-NE 56/53 120–330 8 sessions Depression, Anxiety, Somatization (Hopkins Symptom Checklist); Grief Intensity, Preoccupation, Guilt, Anger (Lieberman & Videka-Sherman, 1986); Psychological Distress (Bradburn Affect Balance Scale); Locus of Control (Pearlman et al, 1981); Self-Esteem (Rosenberg scale, 1965); Social Adjustment (Pearlman et al, 1981, Lieberman & Videka-Sherman, 1986) Lieberman & Yalom, 1992
  Group Adult Y N 50/50 NR 90 days; 14 sessions Grief (TRIG) Sabatini, 1988–89
  Group Adult N Y 139/107 90–17155 84 days; 12 sessions Avoidance/Intrusion (IES); Grief (TRIG); Interpersonal Distress (IIP); Social Functioning (SAS-SR); Depression (BDI); Anxiety (STAI); Mental Distress (BSI, GSI); Self-Esteem (SES); Physical Functioning (SF-36); Symptomatic Distress (SCL-90) Piper, McCallum, et al, 2001*
  Group Adult N Y-NE 61/55 120–1095 84 days; 12 sessions Avoidance/Intrusion (IES); Stress Symptoms (SRRS); Depression (BDI); Mental Distress (BPRS, SCL-90); Social Functioning (SAS-SR); Overall Functioning (GAS) Marmar, Horowitz, et al, 1988**
  Group Child Y N 16/16 30–365 56 days Depression (CDI); Behavior (AP, AT); Grief (BP); Family alliance (TP); Grief, family relationship (TC) Tonkins & Lambert, 1996
  Group Child N NA 45/37 30–3650 70 days Trauma (CPTSRI) Salloum, Avery, & McClain, 2001
Psycho-analytic Group Adult N N 154/59 NR 84 days; 12 sessions Affect (author created); Psychodynamic Work (PWORS); Severity of objectives (author created) McCallum, Piper, & Morin, 1993
Inter-personal Individual Senior Y Y-NE 80/66 216–279 112 days; up to 16 sessions Grief (TRIG) Reynolds, Miller, et al, 1999***
Behavioral and Psycho-dynamic Individual Adult Y N 83/83 <1825 15–20 sessions Anger (State Trait Anger Inventory); Anxiety (STAI); Avoidance/Intrusion (IES); Somatic/psychoneurotic symptoms (SCL-90); (Locus of Control Scale) Kleber & Brom, 1987
  1. Notes: * Study also included support/counselling condition. ** Treatment also included aspects of interpersonal psychotherapy. *** Study also included pharmacotherapy condition. **** Treatment also included aspects of social support. ***** Study also included social activities condition. Legend: Type, Type of Intervention; Format, Format of Intervention; Pop, Target Population; CG, Control Group; RA, Random Assignment; Num, Number of subjects; TSL, Time Since Loss; DT, Duration of Trial; NA, Not Applicable; NR, Not Reported; UC, Unclear; Y, Yes; N, No; Y-NE Randomization mentioned, but allocation method not explicitly stated.