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Table 1 Demographic characteristics of patients with liver cancer

From: Effect of hospice care on quality indicators of end-of-life care among patients with liver cancer: a national longitudinal population-based study in Taiwan 2000–2011

Variable Total Non-H group Short-H group Long-H group p-value p-value for trend test
N (%) 3092(100 %) 2630(85.1 %) 325(10.5 %) 137(4.4 %)   
Gender      0.019  
female 876(28.3 %) 737(28.0 %) 86(26.5 %) 53(38.7 %)   0.072
male 2216(71.7 %) 1893(72.0 %) 239(73.5 %) 84(61.3 %)   0.072
Age 65.6 ± 13.37 65.9 ± 13.42 67.70 ± 12.42 67.50 ± 13.85 0.001 0.001
Survival (years) 1.43 ± 0.03 1.40 ± 0.04 1.52 ± 0.11 1.60 ± 0.17 0.212 0.162
Diabetes 446(14.4 %) 360(13.7 %) 54(16.6 %) 32(23.4 %) 0.004 0.001
Hypertension 2875(93.0 %) 2414(91.8 %) 324(99.7 %) 137(100 %) <0.001 <0.001
Stroke 209(6.8 %) 169(6.4 %) 27(8.3 %) 13(9.5 %) 0.190 0.070
Liver cirrhosis 2108(68.2 %) 1794(68.2 %) 226(69.5 %) 88(64.2 %) 0.532 0.619
Esophageal varices bleeding 420(13.6 %) 381(14.5 %) 29(8.9 %) 10(7.3 %) 0.002 0.001
Portal hypertension 43(1.4 %) 37(1.4 %) 5(1.5 %) 1(0.7 %) 0.782 0.680
Ascites 908(29.4 %) 765(29.1 %) 102(31.4 %) 41(29.9 %) 0.685 0.518
SBP 23.8(7.7 %) 206(7.8 %) 24(7.4 %) 8(5.8 %) 0.678 0.405
Hepatic encephalopathy 766(24.8 %) 638(24.3 %) 92(28.3 %) 36(26.3 %) 0.257 0.189
Hepatorenal syndrome 99(3.2 %) 91(3.5 %) 4(1.2 %) 4(2.9 %) 0.076 0.138
Hemodialysis 147(4.8 %) 138(5.2 %) 6(1.8 %) 3(2.2 %) 0.001 0.005
CKD 183(5.9 %) 151(5.7 %) 21(6.5 %) 11(8.0 %) 0.431 0.245
Comorbidity of above       
 No. of comorbidities = 0 141(4.6 %) 140(5.3 %) 1(0.3 %) 0 <0.001 <0.001
 No. of comorbidities = 1 549(17.8 %) 473(18.0 %) 49(15.1 %) 27(19.7 %) 0.349 0.750
 No. of comorbidities = 2 765(24.7 %) 630(24.0 %) 101(31.1 %) 34(24.8 %) 0.022 0.080
 No. of comorbidities = 3 728(23.5 %) 613(23.3 %) 80(24.6 %) 35(25.5 %) 0.722 0.442
 No. of comorbidities > 3 909(29.4 %) 774(29.4 %) 94(28.9 %) 41(29.9 %) 0.969 0.994
Metastasis 974(31.5 %) 781(29.7 %) 130(40.0 %) 63(46.0 %) <0.001 <0.001
HBV 1079(34.9 %) 914(34.8 %) 123(37.8 %) 42(30.7 %) 0.308 0.877
HCV 832(26.9 %) 690(26.2 %) 100(30.8 %) 42(30.7 %) 0.129 0.061
CCI 3.69 ± 2.45 3.68 ± 2.40 3.68 ± 2.74 3.96 ± 2.80 0.284 0.284
SES       
 LES 2080(67.3 %) 1764(67.1 %) 222(68.3 %) 94(68.6 %) 0.869 0.585
 MES 800(25.9 %) 682(25.9 %) 83(25.5 %) 35(25.5 %) 0.996 0.746
 HES 212(6.9 %) 184(7.0 %) 20(6.2 %) 8(5.8 %) 0.836 0.466
Urbanization level       
 Urban 1513(48.9 %) 1292(49.1 %) 149(45.8 %) 72(52.6 %) 0.374 0.994
 Suburban 1092(35.3 %) 937(35.6 %) 111(34.2 %) 44(32.1 %) 0.651 0.340
 Rural 487(15.8 %) 401(15.2 %) 65(20.0 %) 21(15.3 %) 0.090 0.207
Teaching hospitala 1879(62.3 %) 1626(63.5 %) 169(53.5 %) 84(61.3 %) 0.003 0.021
Admission daysb 13.7 ± 10.8 13.0 ± 10.9 16.5 ± 8.98 18.8 ± 11.3 <0.001 <0.001
  1. an = 3015
  2. bAdmission days: mean admission days in the last month
  3. Abbreviations: Non-H group, patients who did not receive hospice care; Long-H group, patients who received hospice care for longer than 1 month; Short-H group, patients who received hospice care for a period shorter than 1 month; SBP, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis; CKD, chronic kidney disease; HBV, hepatitis B virus; HCV, hepatitis C virus; CCI, Charlson comorbidity index; SES, socioeconomic status; LES, low socioeconomic status; MES, moderate socioeconomic status; HES, high socioeconomic status