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Table 4 Studies that implemented compassion interventions

From: Compassion: a scoping review of the healthcare literature

Study Country Setting Design (evaluation) Intervention Participants Outcomes (improved)
Fogarty et al. [81] US Oncology RCT (survey) Enhanced compassion videotape intervention (n = 107)
Standard care videotape (n = 103)
Breast cancer survivors (n = 123), women without cancer (n = 87) - Physician compassion (yes)
- Anxiety - State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (yes)
- Treatment information recall (no)
- Hypothetical treatment decision (no)
- Perceptions of physician attributes (yes, but not for encouraging patient’s questions or involvement in decisions)
Redelmeier et al. [82] CA Emergency RCT (multiple) Compassionate contact from trained student volunteers (n = 58)
Usual care (n = 53)
Homeless in ER (n = 133) - Patient satisfaction - survey (yes)
- Number of repeat visits - hospital administrative data (yes)
Betcher [84] US Palliative care 1 group pre-post (survey) Compassionate communication workshop with simulation In-patient nurses (n = 8) - Confidence in conveying a caring attitude (yes)
- Developing caring relationship (yes)
- Satisfaction with care provided (yes)
Dewar, Cook [87] UK Hospital 1 group longitudinal (qualitative) Communities of practice, action learning sets, workplace-based activities Nurses (n = 86) - Staff culture of compassionate care (yes, but staff reported institutional barriers to providing compassionate care)
Fortney et al. [88] US Primary care 1 group longitudinal (survey) Abbreviated mindfulness course with home practice, intended to improve compassion towards others Primary care clinicians (n = 30) - Compassion - Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale (no)
- Depression, anxiety, stress - Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (yes)
- Perceived stress - Perceived Stress Scale (yes)
- Resilience - 14-item Resilience Scale (no)
- Job satisfaction - Maslach Burnout Inventory (yes)
Blanco et al. [85] US Residency program 1 group pre-post (multiple) Compassionate care curriculum Residents (n = 41) - Empathy - Jefferson Scale of Physician's Empathy (no)
- Interpersonal and communication skills – standardized patient encounter (yes – self-ratings; no – standardized patient rating)
- Application of program to daily interactions with patients, etc. – journal (yes, but described barriers to relationship-centered care)
- Usefulness of presentation - peer feedback tool (yes)
Shih et al. [90] TW University medical school - palliative care 1 group pre-post (survey) Palliative care training course Preclinical medical students (n = 251) - Perception of compassionate care (mixed)
- Knowledge of clinical management (yes)
- Beliefs about ethical decision-making in palliative care (yes)
Deloney, Graham [86] US University medical school 1 group post-test (multiple) Experiential learning module (drama - Wit Educational Initiative) with pre-play lecture, play, post-play lecture First-year medical students (n = 138) - Care provided by the physicians - email interaction (yes)
- Module experience - Wit Educational Initiative Evaluation Survey (yes)
- Drama’s relevance to clinical care - written assignment (yes)
Kalish et al. [89] US University medical school - internal medicine 1 group post-test (multiple) Outpatient clinical skills training exercise Third-year medical students (n = 11), standardized patients (n = 10) - Compassionate care interactions – student tagged videotape (mixed)
- Compassionate care – student compassionate care interactions questionnaire (mixed), patient-partner questionnaire (yes)
- Course experience – student focus groups (yes)
Adamson, Dewar [83] UK University nursing school 1 group post-test (qualitative) Stories used for reflective learning Nursing students (n = 37) - Reflective learning (yes)