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Table 3 Patients’ perceptions of care received across the four settings, by dimensions and single items

From: Patients’ perceptions of palliative care quality in hospice inpatient care, hospice day care, palliative units in nursing homes, and home care: a cross-sectional study

  Perceived reality (PR)
Dimension/single item Hospice inpatient care (HIC)   Hospice day care (HDC)   Palliative units in nursing homes (PUNH)   Home care (HC)     
  n = 72 Missing n = 51 Missing n = 30 Missing n = 38 Missing    
  Adjusted mean (SE)   Adjusted mean (SE)   Adjusted mean (SE)   Adjusted mean (SE)   F (df, error) P value* P value**
Medical–technical competence 3.25 (0.10) 7 3.02 (0.10) 2 3.04 (0.13) 2 2.76 (0.13) 5 3.16 (3, 168) 0.026  
Physical–technical conditions 3.62 (0.08) 7 3.43 (0.09) 2 3.48 (0.12) 2 3.32 (0.12) 5 1.86 (3, 168) 0.138  
Identity-oriented approach 3.46 (0.06) 7 3.39 (0.07) 2 3.11 (0.09) 2 3.16 (0.09) 2 4.55 (3, 171) 0.004 HIC > PUNH: 0.013
Sociocultural atmosphere 3.45 (0.07) 8 3.34 (0.08) 2 3.25 (0.10) 3 2.95 (0.09) 4 6.45 (3, 167) <0.001 HIC > HC: <0.001
HDC > HC: 0.008
Medical care (single item) 3.72 (0.09) 8 3.53 (0.11) 4 3.68 (0.16) 2 3.04 (0.15) 2 5.65 (3, 165) 0.001 HIC > HC: 0.001
PUNH > HC: 0.018
Personal hygiene (single item) 3.60 (0.10) 15 3.23 (0.17) 34 3.69 (0.14) 5 3.37 (0.16) 15 2.17 (3, 115) 0.095  
Pleasant and safe atmosphere (single item) 3.79 (0.05) 16 4.00 (0.06) 17 3.95 (0.07) 5 4.75 (2, 109) 0.011 HDC > HIC: 0.009
  1. Df degree of freedom, SE standard error
  2. The statistical level was assumed at the P <0.025 level
  3. *P values refer to differences in adjusted mean between the settings, after control for differences among the groups with regard to age, education levels, and number of illnesses, measured by ANCOVA analysis
  4. **P values refer to differences in adjusted mean between the settings, measured by Bonferroni’s test for post-hoc comparison