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Table 1 Demographic characteristics

From: Formal procedure to facilitate the decision to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining interventions in a neonatal intensive care unit: a seven-year retrospective study

  Cohort 1 (n = 77) Cohort 2 (n = 116) p value
Gestational age, mean (+/− SD) (weeks) 30 (5) 29 (5.1) 0.451
Weight, mean (+/− SD) (g) 1508 (1056) 1435 (994) 0.666
Sex, n (%)
 Female 36 (46.8) 50 (43.1) 0.617
Place of birth, n (%)
 Inborn 56 (72.7) 64 (55.2) 0.014
Resuscitation in delivery room, n (%)
 Yes 63 (81.8) 89 (76.7) 0.397
 Apgar < 7 to 5 min, n (%) 34 (44.1) 60 (51.7) 0.853
Birth context, n (%)
 Perinatal asphyxia 8 (10.4) 12 (10.3) 0.674
 Congenital anomaly 14 (18.2) 13 (11.2)
 Premature 17 (22.1) 25 (21.6)
 Weight < 1000 g 37 (48.1) 63 (54.3)
 Other 1 (1.3) 3 (2.6)
 Age at death, mean (+/− SD) (days) 19 (51) 15 (21) 0.525
 Age at death, median (IQR) (days) 6 (16) 7 (16)
Death delay time, n (%)
 Within 48 h 21 (27.3) 21 (18.1) 0.131
 In the first week 22 (28.6) 42 (36.2) 0.270
 Within three weeks 20 (26) 29 (25) 0.879
 Within two months 7 (9.1) 17 (14.7) 0.251
 Within three months 4 (5.2) 3 (2.6) 0.343
 Antenatal palliative care decision, n (%) 1 (1.3) 0 0.218
Verhagen classification, n (%)
 Class 1 12 (15.6) 15 (12.9) 0.061
 Class 2 35 (45.5) 34 (29.3)
 Class3 10 (13) 16 (13.2)
 Class 4 20 (26) 50 (43.1)
Cause of death, n (%)
Severe hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy 9 (11.7) 13 (11.2) 0.708
 Other neurological injury 16 (20.8) 35 (30.2)
 Sepsis 16 (20.8) 17 (14.7)
 Hemodynamic failure 19 (24.7) 29 (25)
 Congenital anomaly 7 (9.1) 10 (8.6)
 Respiratory failure 10 (13) 11 (9.5)
 Other 0 1 (0.9)
 Collaborative decision meeting, n (%) 25 (32.5) 64 (55.2) 0.002
  1. Verhagen classification: class 1: children who died despite cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) (no withholding nor withdrawing of LSIs), class 2: children who died while the ventilator, without CPR (no withdrawing of LSIs, but CPR withheld), class 3: children who died after LSIs were withdrawn or class 4: LSIs were withheld