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Table 1 Relevant clinical characteristics (n = 1156)

From: Negative pain management index scores do not necessarily indicate inadequate pain management: a cross-sectional study

Age — mean ± SD 62.9 ± 11.6
Female sex — no. (%) 500 (43.3)
Hospitalized Department no. (%)
 Surgery 227 (19.6)
 Gastroenterology 400 (34.6)
 Respiratory Meds 213 (18.4)
 Hematology 87 (7.5)
 ENT 71 (6.1)
 Urology 58 (5.0)
 Gynecology 86 (7.4)
 Other 14 (1.4)
Analgesicsa — no. (%)
 None 391 (33.8)
 Non opioids 321 (27.8)
 Mild opioids 47 (4.1)
 Strong opioids 397 (34.3)
Performance Status — no. (%)
 0 456 (39.5)
 1 374 (32.4)
 2 159 (13.8)
 3 118 (10.2)
 4 49 (4.2)
Treatment history — no. (%)
 Surgery 463 (40.1)
 Chemotherapy 671 (58.0)
 Radiation therapy 244 (21.1)
NRS — no. (%)
 0 (No pain) 232 (20.1)
 1–4 (Mild pain) 476 (41.2)
 5–6 (Moderate pain) 191 (16.5)
 7–10 (Severe pain) 257 (22.2)
  1. aClassification according to the WHO’s pain relief ladder. Non-opioids included non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or acetaminophen. Analgesics not classified in the WHO’s pain relief ladder, such as adjuvant analgesics, were assigned to “none” in this study
  2. NRS numerical rating scale