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Table 2 Face-to-face strategies for healthcare providers (alphabetic order reference)

From: Towards appropriate information provision for and decision-making with patients with limited health literacy in hospital-based palliative care in Western countries: a scoping review into available communication strategies and tools for healthcare providers

Strategy References
Teach-back method [19, 44]
Jargon free communication [19, 44]
Slow down rate of speech, use short sentences and familiar words, limit provided information to a maximum of three main points when possible [19, 44]
Use patient navigators [19, 45]
Plan sufficient time for a consultation [19]
Allow patients to record the consultation [19]
Focus only on information most critical to patients’ decision-making, i.e. seek to understand the priorities and values of patients and their families and explain how they might best achieve their goals given the options available [19]
Pay attention to communication about prognostic and treatment options, especially the numeric format of the information. Supplementing face-to-face communication about numeric data with graphs or other visual displays facilitates comprehension, especially the use of pictographs. [19]
Incorporate health literacy in medical training [19]
Group-based education programs on caregiving and coping with loss [19]
Encourage patients to have a preferred support person present for important discussions [19]
Employ specialized counsellors to improve communication with patients [19]
Information should focus on actionable information relevant to patients concerns [19]
Adopt universal precautions that reduce the cognitive burden placed on all patients and ensure the comprehension of key information, instead of viewing limited health literacy as the exception to the rule [19]
Ability for patients to communicate 24/7 with a health professional, to ask questions and have their fears allayed [45]
Establish respectful rapport with patients [45]
Help with predicting future care needs of patients [45]
Have regular meetings with people providing care to patients to discuss progress (both formal and informal care givers) [45]
Being open and honest and advising patients of the reality of the situation [45]
Early assessment of post-discharge needs [44]
Tailor information to patients [44]
Provide information about medication [44]