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Table 3 Prevalence of patients at risk of deteriorating and dying

From: Frequency of discussing and documenting advance care planning in primary care: secondary analysis of a multicenter cross-sectional observational study

 n%
General clinical risk of deteriorating health (n = 382)
 Two or more unplanned hospital admissions in the past 6 months10.3
 Performance status is poor or deteriorating, with limited reversibility246.3
 Dependent on others for care due to physical and/or mental health issues266.8
 Significant weight loss over the past 3–6 months and/or a low body mass index184.7
 Persistent symptoms despite optimal treatment of the underlying condition(s)164.2
 The patient or family asked for palliative care, treatment withdrawal/limitation, or a focus on quality of life9725.4
 Disease-specific risk for the deterioration of the conditions  
Cancer (n = 14)
 Functional ability deteriorating due to progressive cancer321.4
 Too frail for cancer treatment or treatment for symptom control214.3
Dementia/frailty (n = 56)
 Unable to dress, walk, or eat without help1221.4
 Eating and drinking less; difficulty swallowing916.1
 Urinary and fecal incontinence1323.2
 No longer able to communicate using verbal language; little social interaction2341.1
 Fractured femur; multiple falls1017.9
 Recurrent febrile episodes or infections; aspiration pneumonia23.6
Neurological disease (n = 18)
 Progressive deterioration of physical and/or cognitive function despite optimal therapy738.9
 Speech problems with increasing difficulty communicating and/or progressive difficulty swallowing211.1
 Recurrent aspiration pneumonia; breathless or respiratory failure15.6
Cardiovascular disease (n = 38)
 NYHA Class III/IV heart failure or extensive, untreatable coronary artery disease with breathlessness or chest pain at rest or on minimal exertion410.5
 Severe, inoperable peripheral vascular disease00.0
Respiratory disease (n = 13)
 Severe chronic lung disease with breathlessness at rest or on minimal exertion between exacerbations215.4
 Needs long-term oxygen therapy17.7
 Has needed ventilation for respiratory failure or ventilation is contraindicated00.0
Kidney disease (n = 5)
 Stage 4 or 5 chronic kidney disease (eGFR < 30 ml/min) with deteriorating health360.0
 Kidney failure complicating other life-limiting conditions or treatments360.0
 Stopping dialysis00.0
Liver disease (n = 3)
 Advanced cirrhosis with one or more complications in the past year: diuretic-resistant ascites00.0
 Advanced cirrhosis with one or more complications in the past year: hepatic encephalopathy00.0
 Advanced cirrhosis with one or more complications in the past year: hepatorenal syndrome00.0
 Advanced cirrhosis with one or more complications in the past year: bacterial peritonitis00.0
 Advanced cirrhosis with one or more complications in the past year: recurrent variceal bleeds00.0
 Liver transplantation is contraindicated266.7