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Table 1 Basic descriptive statistics and comparison of volunteers and paid staff regarding specific variables

From: Differences in well-being and fear of death among female hospice employees and volunteers in Hungary

VariableCronbach-alpha (item number)Total sample (N = 168–176)Volunteers (N = 44–49)Paid staff (N = 123–127)Z/t (p)
Mean (SD)
Fear of the dying process0,77 (6)15.4 (5.55)13.6 (5.19)16.0 (5.55)Z = 2.392* (p = 0.017)
Fear of the deada0.60 (5)10.2 (3.79)9.2 (3.50)10.5 (3.84)Z = 2.029* (p = 0.042)
Fear of being destroyed0.60 (4)9.8 (4.06)8.9 (4.11)10.1 (4.00)Z = 1.856+ (p = 0.063)
Fear for significant others0.71 (6)20.7 (4.72)19.0 (4.86)21.3 (4.54)t (170) = −2.898** (p = 0.004)
Fear of the unknowna0.67 (4)8.0 (3.53)7.8 (3.91)8.0 (3.41)Z = 0.555 (0.579)
Fear of conscious death0.68 (5)7.7 (3.48)7.5 (3.70)7.7 (3.40)Z = 0.337 (p = 0.736)
Fear of the body after death0.72 (5)10.2 (3.60)9.4 (3.65)10.5 (3.55)Z = 2.225* (p = 0.026)
Fear of premature death0.82 (4)8.7 (4.16)7.4 (4.19)9.2 (4.06)Z = 2.993** (p = 0.003)
Shortened Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI)0.86 (9)2.9 (3.76)2.5 (3.97)3.0 (3.68)Z = 1.219 (p = 0.223)
Vital exhaustion scale0.71 (5)2.2 (1.64)1.8 (1.55)2.4 (1.65)Z = 2.220* (p = 0.026)
Perceived stress scale0.88 (10)26.6 (6.38)26.0 (7.15)26.8 (6.09)t (167) = −0.785 (p = 0.434)
WHO well-being scale0.81 (5)8.9 (2.74)9.6 (2.47)8.6 (2.80)t (174) = 2.071* (p = 0.040)
  1. Remark a: in order to improve internal consistency these scales excluded reverse items; they are shorter than the original scales by one item. +p < 0.10, * p < 0.05, ** p < 0.01