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Table 1 Characteristics of residents by subgroups

From: No difference in effects of ‘PACE steps to success’ palliative care program for nursing home residents with and without dementia: a pre-planned subgroup analysis of the seven-country PACE trial

TOTAL SAMPLE FOR THE SUBGROUP ANALYSIS Baseline scores (T0) Post-intervention (T1 + T2)
Control Intervention Control Intervention
N = 238 N = 221 N = 460 N = 351
Advanced dementia (n = 99) (n = 78) (n = 136) (n = 104)
Age at time of death, unadjusted mean (SD) 85.5 (7.3) 86.3 (8.6) 86.1 (8.0) 86.5 (8.3)
Gender, female, unadjusted frequency, n (%) 70 (70.7) 47 (60.3) 88 (64.7) 64 (61.5)
Eating dependencya, n (%)
  - Independent 0 (0) 1 (1.3) 0 (0) 3 (2.9)
  - Needs assistance 17 (17.3) 18 (23.4) 26 (19.1) 21 (20.4)
  - Fully dependent 81 (82.7) 58 (73.3) 110 (80.9) 79 (76.7)
Dressing dependencya, n (%)
  - Independent 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  - Needs assistance 6 (6.1) 4 (5.2) 3 (2.2) 7 (6.7)
  - Fully dependent 92 (93.4) 73 (94.8) 133 (97.8) 97 (93.3)
Mobility dependencya, n (%)
  - Independent 1 (1.0) 2 (2.6) 2 (1.5) 2 (1.9)
  - Needs assistance 12 (12.4) 9 (11.7) 11 (8.3) 16 (15.5)
  - Fully dependent 84 (86.6) 66 (85.7) 120 (90.2) 85 (82.5)
Non-advanced dementia (n = 65) (n = 61) (n = 167) (n = 110)
Age at time of death, unadjusted mean (SD) 87.1 (7.9) 87.5 (7.5) 85.7 (7.8) 86.9 (6.1)
Gender, female, unadjusted frequency, n (%) 47 (57.7) 36 (59.0) 113 (67.7) 73 (66.4)
Eating dependencya, n (%)
  - Independent 6 (9.4) 13 (21.7) 33 (20.1) 28 (25.5)
  - Needs assistance 37 (57.8) 30 (50.0) 97 (59.1) 61 (55.5)
  - Fully dependent 21 (32.8) 17 (28.3) 34 (20.7) 21 (19.1)
Dressing dependencya, n (%)
  - Independent 1 (1.6) 3 (5.2) 8 (4.8) 6 (5.6)
  - Needs assistance 17 (27.0) 19 (32.8) 58 (34.9) 41 (38.0)
  - Fully dependent 45 (71.4) 36 (62.1) 100 (60.2) 61 (56.5)
Mobility dependencya, n (%)
  - Independent 13 (20.3) 6 (10.2) 29 (17.5) 14 (13.0)
  - Needs assistance 18 (28.1) 28 (47.5) 57 (34.3) 39 (36.1)
  - Fully dependent 33 (51.6) 25 (42.4) 80 (48.2) 55 (50.9)
Without dementia (n = 74) (n = 82) (n = 157) (n = 137)
Age at time of death, unadjusted mean (SD) 82.5 (12.2) 83.2 (9.6) 84.0 (10.9) 84.2 (10.2)
Gender, female, unadjusted frequency, n (%) 50 (67.6) 44 (53.7) 88 (56.1) 79 (57.7)
Eating dependencya, n (%)
  - Independent 18 (25.0) 25 (31.6) 55 (35.5) 47 (35.6)
  - Needs assistance 34 (47.2) 33 (41.8) 68 (43.9) 51 (38.6)
  - Fully dependent 20 (27.8) 21 (26.6) 32 (20.6) 34 (25.8)
Dressing dependencya, n (%)
  - Independent 3 (4.2) 11 (13.8) 14 (9.0) 21 (6.1)
  - Needs assistance 25 (34.7) 25 (31.3) 63 (40.6) 103 (29.9)
  - Fully dependent 44 (61.1) 44 (55.0) 78 (50.3) 220 (64.0)
Mobility dependencya, n (%)
  - Independent 4 (5.5) 14 (18.2) 22 (14.2) 25 (18.9)
  - Needs assistance 29 (39.7) 24 (31.2) 55 (35.5) 42 (31.8)
  - Fully dependent 40 (54.8) 39 (50.6) 78 (50.3) 65 (49.2)
  1. Missing cases – Advanced dementia, baseline: age = 3; gender = 4; BANS-S = 3 | post-intervention measurements: age = 6; gender = 3; BANS-S = 3). Non-advanced dementia, baseline: age = 6; gender = 5; BANS-S = 3 | post-intervention measurements: age = 6; gender = 6; BANS-S = 2). Without dementia, baseline: age = 3; gender = 4; BANS-S = 7 | post-intervention measurements: age = 12; gender = 8; BANS-S = 7
  2. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, BANS-S Bedford Alzheimer Nursing Severity-Scale
  3. a Measured using BANS-S one month before death (range 7–28). Higher scores indicate greater severity. Unadjusted frequencies