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Table 4 Description of the results of laboratory tests of older patients with cancer in palliative care

From: Effect of chocolate on older patients with cancer in palliative care: a randomised controlled study

VARIABLES STUDY BASELINE END OF STUDY
Mean ± standard deviation Mean ± standard deviation
CG IG1 IG2 CG IG1 IG2
  n = 15 n = 16 n = 15 n = 15 n = 15 n = 15
Hemoglobin (U/dL) 13.0 ± 1.3 12.7 ± 1.8 12.5 ± 2.1 13.0 ± 1.4* 12.3 ± 1.8 12.6 ± 1.5
White blood cells (×103/μL) 5.9 ± 2.0 7.3 ± 3.4 5.7 ± 1.8 6.0 ± 2.0 6.08 ± 2.0 7.0 ± 3.2
Lymphocytes (×103/μL) 1.5 ± 0.4 1.9 ± 0.6 1.8 ± 0.7 1.6 ± 0.5 1.68 ± 0.5 1.7 ± 0.5
Total proteins (U/dL) 6.8 ± 0.5 6.7 ± 0.7 6.9 ± 0.6 6.9 ± 0.4 6.69 ± 0.7 7.0 ± 0.7
Albumin (U/dL) 4.2 ± 0.3* 4.0 ± 0.4 4.1 ± 0.3 4.2 ± 0.2* 4.0 ± 0.3 4.2 ± 0.3
Vitamin (mg/dL) 0.3 ± 0.1** 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1 0.4 ± 0.1** 0.2 ± 0.1 0.2 ± 0.1
C-reactive protein (mU/dL) 0.4 ± 0.5 2.4 ± 4.0 1.8 ± 3.4 0.9 ± 1.2 2.4 ± 3.0 1.4 ± 3.2
8-OHdG (ng/mL) 4.6 ± 2.2 δ 4.9 ± 2.2 δ 4.4 ± 1.6 β 5.9 ± 2.6 6.0 ± 2.0 5.3 ± 1.4
MDA (μM) 10.9 ± 3.3 14.4 ± 10.2 15.6 ± 11.9 α 9.1 ± 2.6 11.3 ± 3.0 10.8 ± 4.8
GSH (μM) 9.8 ± 1.4 9.0 ± 1.8 10.0 ± 11.1 β α 10.3 ± 2.0 8.8 ± 1.5 10.7 ± 2.1
Interleukin 6 (pg/mL) 51.8 ± 38.6 136.6 ± 182.3 65.21 ± 132.49 87.2 ± 125.6 154.8 ± 208.4 38.7 ± 25.0
  1. CG control group, IG1 intervention group 1 (chocolate with 55% cocoa), IG2 intervention group 2 (white chocolate), 8-OGdG 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, MDA malondialdehyde, GSH reduced glutathione, μL microliter, U unit, dL deciliter, mU miliunit, mg miligram, μM micromol, pg picogram, mL milliliter
  2. * p = 0.03 vs. IG1; ** p < 0.01 vs. IG1 e IG2; δ p < 0.01 baseline vs. end; α p = 0.02 baseline vs. end; β p = 0.04 baseline vs. end; p = 0.02 vs. CG e < 0.01 vs. IG2