This article has Open Peer Review reports available.
Living with AIDS in Uganda: a qualitative study of patients’ and families’ experiences following referral to hospice
© Too et al. 2015
Received: 16 January 2015
Accepted: 25 November 2015
Published: 28 November 2015
Globally, the majority of people with HIV/AIDS live in sub-Saharan Africa. While the increasing availability of antiretroviral therapy is improving the outlook for many, its effects are yet to reach all of those in need and patients still present with advanced disease. This paper reports findings from qualitative interviews with patients living with AIDS and their caregivers who were receiving palliative care from Hospice Africa Uganda (HAU). We aimed to understand what motivated patients and their families to seek formal healthcare, whether there were any barriers to help- seeking and how the help and support provided to them by HAU was perceived.
We invited patients with AIDS and their relatives who were newly referred to HAU to participate in qualitative interviews. Patients and carers were interviewed in their homes approximately four weeks after the patient’s enrolment at HAU. Interviews were translated, transcribed and analysed using narrative and thematic approaches.
Interviews were completed with 22 patients (10 women and 12 men) and 20 family caregivers, nominated by patients. Interviews revealed the extent of suffering patients endured and the strain that family caregivers experienced before help was sought or accessed. Patients reported a wide range of severe physical symptoms. Patients and their relatives reported worries about the disclosure of the AIDS diagnosis and fear of stigma. Profound poverty framed all accounts. Poverty and stigma were, depending on the patient and family situation, both motivators and barriers to help seeking behaviour. Hospice services were perceived to provide essential relief of pain and symptoms, as well as providing rehabilitative support and a sense of caring. The hospice was perceived relieve utter destitution, although it was unable to meet all the expectations that patients had.
Hospice care was highly valued and perceived to effectively manage problems such as pain and other symptoms and to provide rehabilitation. Participants noted a strong sense of being “cared for”. However, poverty and a sense of stigma were widespread. Further research is needed to understand how poverty and stigma can be effectively managed in hospice care for patients for advanced AIDS and their families.
Two-thirds of the approximately 40 million people living with HIV/AIDS worldwide live in sub-Saharan Africa  where health resources are limited and existing health services struggle to provide even the most basic health care. While the increasing availability of HAART in Sub Saharan Africa is improving the outlook for many people infected with HIV, its effects are yet to reach many of those in need and many patients still present with advanced disease . Recent evidence suggests that problems persist alongside HAART and that palliative care is still required . Quantitative studies of patients with AIDS under hospice care in East Africa have reported a high prevalence of pain, symptoms and psychological distress , spiritual distress , and poor quality of life . Qualitative data have revealed needs for communication and information . Although poverty is a fundamental underlying problem , the social needs of people living with the highly stigmatised diagnosis of AIDS who are accessing palliative care in Africa are not well understood. Over the last decade or so the World Health Organisation African initiative has recommended that the best way to manage the care of patients with HIV/ AIDS is to provide palliative care alongside efforts to provide active treatment and prevent disease progression . Therefore, understanding “total care needs” is essential for palliative care provision in the context of AIDS hospice care in poor contexts.
Uganda was the first country in sub Saharan Africa to designate palliative care as an essential clinical service and to include palliative care both in the government’s Strategic Health Plan and its HIV/AIDS National Strategic Framework . An estimated 1.2 million people in Uganda are living with HIV/AIDS, with 64,000 AIDS-related deaths in 2009 . A survey of palliative care needs in Uganda has shown that patients’ and families’ needs span three main areas: the relief of pain and other symptoms, counselling and basic financial support including food aid . Many patients and families are caught in a ‘medical poverty trap’  that is characteristic of the situation of most people affected by serious and terminal illness sub Saharan Africa. This means that it is essential that palliative care providers attend to poverty as well as to clinical care [2, 10].
This paper reports findings from qualitative interviews with patients living with AIDS and their caregivers who were receiving palliative care from Hospice Africa Uganda (HAU). We aimed to understand what motivated patients and their families to seek formal healthcare, whether there were any barriers to help- seeking and how the help and support provided to them by HAU was perceived in relation to their total care needs.
Cross sectional qualitative interviews were conducted with patients with AIDS and their nominated family carers as part of a larger mixed methods study .
Patients and their carers attending HAU were interviewed in their homes. The study was conducted in the capital city of Uganda, Kampala, and its environs.
HAU is the model hospice for Hospice Africa, founded in 1992. It seeks to provide affordable and culturally appropriate palliative care for patients with cancer and / or HIV/AIDS. There are now three hospices in Uganda, under an umbrella organization based in Kampala from which we recruited patients. The model of service involves out-patient care and home-based care within a defined operational area. HAU works closely with local hospitals and other health care facilities to accept referrals of patients suffering from pain and symptoms. However, the main source of referral is self-referral. By 31st March 2014, HAU had provided support to 23, 653 patients since its inception .
Over a period of six weeks in 2009, patients with stage III and IV HIV who were newly referred to HAU were invited to participate in the study. To be eligible for study inclusion, patients had to be at least 18 years old, living within six miles of HAU, and able to communicate in either English or Luganda. Patients were invited to nominate family member(s) closely involved in their care, so that these individuals could also be invited to take part in the study.
An information poster was displayed in the waiting area of HAU to facilitate patients’ general understanding of the project. Hospice staff identified potential participants when they enrolled at the service and, with the patient’s permission, referred them to the study researcher (WT) who provided then with verbal and written information. Written consent was then gained for WT to visit the patient at home, alongside the hospice outreach team. Separate consent was gained at the time of the home visit for the conduct of an interview. Family caregivers were similarly given information about the study, with patients asked to pass on a letter of invitation where this was required. Where nominated family members were in attendance at the time of the patient’s referral to the hospice, they were invited to participate in the study directly.
Their experiences from when they first noticed they have HIV/AIDS
What made them seek medical help
Their experiences of the palliative care services received from HAU
Their experiences of giving and receiving care and the difficulties and challenges they encountered.
Interviews lasted between 25 and 45 min. They were digitally-recorded. A bilingual assistant acted as a translator and also interpreter.
Where necessary, interviews were translated verbatim into English with the help of the bi-lingual assistant. Narrative summaries of each interview were written up to understand the context and content of each person’s or dyad’s experience and how their story evolved over time. This was followed by thematic analysis to compare experiences across all interviewees and identify commonalities . The analysis was undertaken by WT without the use of a software package.
Ethical committee review
The study received ethical committee approval from the Ugandan National Commission for Science and Technology (UNCST HS-508) and from HAU. The study proposal also received a positive review by the Research Ethics Committee in the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, at the University of Nottingham  . Written consent was obtained for participants to be interviewed. Anonymity and confidentiality issues were addressed including use of pseudonyms names for participants.
Socio-demographic characteristics and other clinical profile of participants
Socio-demographics characteristics [Baseline]
N = 22
Family member (sibling or relative)
Care setting of participants
Presence of co-morbidity
AIDS related cancers
Receiving Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)
What prompted patients to seek help?
We are struggling with many needs so we gamble our way to hospital…To move to get treatment is a problem. Body also is weak and this part (pointing at body) is painful and I still cough (Participant F)
Now I don’t have any money…just borrowing…not improving…feel a lot of pain. I feel like stealing money to pay for drugs…I wish I could die. (Participant E)
So I went to a Chinese clinic …that is where I was buying that drug from which was very expensive but it didn’t help me…..I experienced skin problems that were not disappearing and I went to Dr. X’s clinic (a private oncologist). I also went to the Infectious Disease Institute to get HAART which has helped me to live and now [the] hospice doctor. (Participant E)
I have gone to a witchdoctor …it was my daughters who took me there and the witchdoctor would give us a pounded form of herbal medicines…with instructions to boil then and give me plenty to drink of it. (Participant D)
People began fearing me when the wound opened up and the flesh started coming out…I did not know what to do with it, so I began to chop off the blistering growth in my arm. (Participant C)
The wounds in the feet are disturbing me. By the time I got off the bed I had some little strength but I was breathing badly, and I said ‘Oh God, why am I breathing so badly’? (Participant B)
Just weakness and pain… the weakness is worrying her more because there are some things she would like to do on her own, naturally she is very hard working. (Daughter, caring for participant A).
Psychosocial and emotional distress
You know I take care of him but I have my family and children also to take care of. It is not easy but we try. I know I will have to take care of his children and mine at the same time in school [meaning currently and when the patient dies]. I count like I have two families to take care. It is money draining but what can you do? Now he has no energy/strength; he used to be truck driver. (A family caregiver, caring for his brother participant E).
You see we are struggling…the patient is lying there on the mat, no money for medication for the leg, no food, no drink; we are just there. (Participant G)
You see I am like this: she has diarrhoea, sometimes her clothes are soaking wet and I need to clean, I need gloves…I don’t even know if I have contracted [it], you see I don’t know my status. (Daughter-in-law of participant D)
What barriers were there to help seeking?
We have already alluded above to the dual role that poverty played in hindering and facilitating help seeking behaviour. Stigma was another key factor that played an important but complex role in relation to help seeking behaviour, acting both as a prompt and a key barrier to help-seeking.
Where I used to stay at my auntie’s place- I didn’t tell anyone of my status. The only person who knew was my brother. Where l live now at my brother’s house they know because they love me and no one discriminates (against) me; they treat me like any other family member (Participant H)
When people at home discovered that participant F has HIV/AIDS and cancer they left us and abandoned us, so we learnt to be on our own….Now [our] money is over and we are now walking in the Kampala Street, hoping to get someone to help us. If we get a ‘good Samaritan’ we will thank God (Wife of Participant F)
I did not want people to see me…Even people at home started to isolate me… you find they say don’t use our basin, don’t use our cup… use your own cup… get your own plate ….I used to work in an hotel and she (boss) feared that I would stick to her in the final stages of my disease so she kicked me off the hotel (Participant I)
In one case included in this study a comparatively young widow aged 39, had been abandoned by her husband’s family because of fears of contagion and had to return to her parental home. However, on her return, her immediate family struggled to care for her and she was put into an old, abandoned building where the only person in attendance was a young child. The child looked depressed and tired and was unable to attend school because of the duties thrust upon her. Participant B eventually accessed help from the hospice but died seven weeks after her referral, having been admitted to hospital from home for emergency intervention for dyspnoea.
Experiences of services from Hospice Africa Uganda
The wound [a fungating Kaposi’s sarcoma] was so painful, but now it is only ‘paralysed’ but not [so] painful. I used to experience lots of pain and did not have specialised care, but now I get visited like now you have come [to my] home. I am always lonely since my daughter is married and I am alone here (Participant J)
Even with all these drugs (showing them to the researcher) they have been giving me …the symptoms were not going. But since I came here and was given some treatment there is some improvement and I don’t have diarrhoea so much…you, the hospice, when I come to you, you take care of me and you give me some assistance. Because some hospitals you go to, no-one takes care of you and your illness gets worse (Participant K)
There has been a big improvement, even people notice … I am able to interact with people now and move around. I can wear shoes…I feel good about myself now, since I am no longer smelling (Participant L)
I used to have … what I can I say it makes your face … depressed … like fear … but now I’m feeling better. You see, like now in the morning, I woke up and I had nothing to do … then I was trying to make a table in the workshop [place of employment] … Even when I go back to Kabale … I can dig … as you have found me working in the workshop and even go back to school. (Participant M)
I will tell you the situation I am in because before I was in a very bad situation but now I see a difference….In this illness, without telling lies, from the time I started going to the Infectious Disease Institute, I have not bought any medication [HAART].. I like hospice also for giving me the morphine for which I also don’t pay (Participant N)
Last time you came you gave me some sugar and now it is finished and you know now I am not working and I am not leaving the house. I have backache and I have nowhere to get it. (Participant O)
‘Though I may want to work, I don’t have help. Any work I can do, for instance, before I was dealing in buying and selling of bananas but now there is no money. I want the hospice to assist my child, especially with school fees, because the father died and the child has no help. I don’t have money to take him to school (Participant P)
This study explored the experiences of patients living with AIDS who were newly referred Hospice Africa Uganda and their caregivers. Qualitative interviews revealed the extent of suffering patients endured and the strain that family caregivers experienced before help was sought or accessed, and how poverty and stigma were, depending on the patient and family situation, both motivators and barriers to help seeking behaviour.
There are a number of limitations to the study conclusions. Our study involved a small sample of participants who were either self-referred or were referred by others to HAU. Caution should therefore be taken when considering the transferability of the findings. We relied on the HAU outreach team to identify and access patients’ homes and, as such, the researcher was looked upon by patients and their families as part of the home-visiting team. This may have introduced bias in the manner that participants spoke about their situation and may have deterred them from making any critical comments. An alternative approach may have been to return to interview participants without the hospice outreach team but this was impractical for reasons of travel costs and translator availability.
Our findings on the role of stigma in the lives of patients with AIDS resonate with a range of research undertaken in Uganda and other African countries [3, 13, 15], and particularly draw attention to the need for further research which examines the relationships between stigma, patients’ and families’ degree of emotional distress and their perceptions of, and access to, services. One study in South Africa  suggests that hospice care itself was experienced by AIDS patients and their families as stigmatising. This was not apparently the case in our study, possibly because of how well known and respected HAU was in the Kampala district where the study was conducted.
Our findings on the profound poverty of people with AIDS and their families lend further support to the need for palliative care in low income countries to be conceptualised more broadly than in high income countries , while the manner in which HAU was perceived to embrace the patient and their family as the unit of care arguably has lessons for how the provision of palliative care can be improved in high income countries.
Participants perceived that hospice care not only relieved their most urgent physical pain and symptoms (with some patients receiving morphine for the first time) but also in many cases enabled their participation in social life once more, thus supporting family care in the community.
This research is the first study focused on patients’ and families’ experiences living with AIDS following referral to hospice in Uganda. Hospice care was highly valued and perceived effectively manage problems such as pain and other symptoms and to provide rehabilitation. However, poverty and a sense of stigma were widespread. Further research is needed to understand how poverty and stigma can be effectively managed in hospice care for patients for advanced AIDS and their families.
We are very grateful for the participation of patients and their family members. We also wish to thank Hospice Africa Uganda for their support towards data collection. The University of Nottingham provided research funds which supported this study.
Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.
- UNAIDS/WHO. Overview of the global AIDS epidemic. Geneva: UNAIDS; 2006.Google Scholar
- Cox S, Gazzard B. Models for palliative care in sub-Saharan Africa. Int Health. 2010;2(2):77–8.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lowther K, Harding R, Selman L, Higginson IJ. Experience of persistent psychological symptoms and perceived stigma among people with HIV on Antiretroviral therapy (ART)? A systematic review. Int J Nurs Studies. 2014, in press.Google Scholar
- Grant E, Murray SA, Grant A, Brown J. A good death in rural Kenya? Listening to Meru patients and their families talk about care needs at the end of life. J Palliat Care. 2003;19(3):159–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sepulveda C, Habiyambere V, Amandua J, Borok M, Kikule E, Mudanga B, et al. Quality care at the end of life in Africa. Br Med J. 2003;327(7408):209–13.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ministry H. Health sector strategic plan III 2010/11-2014/15. Edited by Health. Kampala: Ministry of Health; 2010.Google Scholar
- UNAIDS/WHO. UNAIDS report on global epidemic. In Global Report. 2010: Geneva; 2010.Google Scholar
- Kikule E. A good death in Uganda: survey of needs for palliative care for terminally ill people in urban areas. Br Med J. 2003;327(7408):192–4.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Whitehead M, Dahlgren G, Evans T. Equity and health sector reforms: can low-income countries escape the medical poverty trap? Lancet. 2001;358:833–6.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Clark D, Wright M, Hunt J, Lynch T. Hospice and palliative care development in Africa: a multi-method review of services and experiences. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2007;33(6):698–710.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Uren SA, Graham TM. Subjective experiences of coping among caregivers in palliative care. Online J Issues Nurs. 2013, 18(2):1-24.Google Scholar
- Hospice Africa Uganda Factsheet [http://www.hospiceafrica.or.ug/index.php/publications/fact-sheets/category/5-fact-sheets Accessed on 11th November 2015]
- Too W. Palliative care for people living with HIV/AIDS in Uganda: an investigation of patients’ and caregivers’ experiences and professional perspectives. Kampala, Uganda: The University of Nottingham, School of Nursing, Midwifery and Physiotherapy; 2011Google Scholar
- Governance: research ethics committee [http://www.nottingham.ac.uk/governance/universitycommittees/research-ethics.aspx accessed 31st July, 2015]
- Makhele MF, Mulaudzi FM. The experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care of AIDS patients in the Bophirima district, North West province, South Africa. Sahara J-Journal Social Aspects HIV/AIDS. 2012;9(2):104–12.Google Scholar