Lozano R, Naghavi M, Foreman K, Lim S, Shibuya K, Aboyans V, et al. Global and regional mortality from 235 causes of death for 20 age groups in 1990 and 2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012;380:2095–128.
Gofton T, Jog M, Schulz V. A palliative approach to neurological care: a literature review. Can J Neurol Sci. 2009;36:296–302.
Kristjanson LJ, Walton J, Toye C. End-of-life challenges in residential aged care facilities: a case for a palliative approach to care. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2005;11:127–9.
Stajduhar KI. Chronic illness, palliative care, and the problematic nature of dying. Can J Nurs Res. 2011;43:7–15.
Bede P, Oliver D, Stodart J, Van Den Berg L, Simmons Z, Brannagain DO, et al. Palliative care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a review of current international guidelines and initiatives. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011;82:413–8.
Hardin KA, Meyers F, Louie S. Integrating palliative care in severe chronic obstructive lung disease. COPD. 2008;5:207–20.
Holley JL. Palliative care in end-stage renal disease: illness trajectories, communication, and hospice use. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2007;14:402–8.
Lawrence V, Samsi K, Murray J, Harari D, Banerjee S. Dying well with dementia: qualitative examination of end-of-life care. Br J Psychiatry. 2011;199:417–22.
Jessup M, Courtney-Pratt H, Robinson A, Cameron-Tucker H, Walters H, Wood-Baker R, et al. Cementing pathways home: enhancing quality of life for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ageing International. 2006;31:232–40.
Davison SN. End-of-life care preferences and needs: perceptions of patients with chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;5:195–204.
Evans G. Improving end of life care for the person with dementia: a practical approach from general practice. Dementia. 2009;8:363–76.
Goodlin SJ. Palliative care in congestive heart failure. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009;54:386–96.
Mitsumoto H, Bromberg M, Johnston W, Tandan R, Byock I, Lyon M, et al. Promoting excellence in end-of-life care in ALS. Amyotroph Lateral Scler Other Motor Neuron Disord. 2005;6:145–54.
Davidson PM, Introna K, Cockburn J, Daly J, Dunford M, Paull G, et al. Synergising acute care and palliative care to optimise nursing care in end-stage cardiorespiratory disease. Aust Crit Care. 2002;15:64–9.
Thoonsen B, Groot M, Engels Y, Prins J, Verhagen S, Galesloot C, et al. Early identification of and proactive palliative care for patients in general practice, incentive and methods of a randomized controlled trial. BMC Fam Pract. 2011;12:123.
Boockvar KS, Meier DE. Palliative care for frail older adults. JAMA. 2006;296:2245–53.
Tieman JJ, Toye C, Oldham L, Kristjanson L, Currow D, Hegarty M, et al. Guidelines for a palliative approach for aged care in the community setting. Palliat Med. 2010;24 Suppl 4:S204.
Andrews S, McInerney F, Parkinson C, Robinson A, Toye C. Crossing boundaries: implementing a palliative approach for people with dementia in aged care. Australas J Ageing. 2010;29 Suppl 2:1–2.
Ashton S, McClelland B, Roe B, Mazhindu D, Gandy R. An end-of-life care initiative for people with dementia. Eur J Palliat Care. 2009;16:240–3.
Kristjanson LJ, Toye C, Dawson S. New dimensions in palliative care: a palliative approach to neurodegenerative diseases and final illness in older people. Med J Aust. 2003;179 Suppl 6:S41–3.
WHO definition of palliative care [http://www.who.int/cancer/palliative/definition/en/]
Connor SR, Sepulveda Bermedo MC. Global atlas of palliative care at the end of life. Worldwide Palliative Care Alliance and World Health Organization. 2014. www.who.int/nmh/Global_Atlas_of_Palliative_Care.pdf. Accessed 9 April 2015.
Temel JS, Greer JA, Muzikansky A, Gallagher ER, Admane S, Jackson VA, et al. Early palliative care for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med. 2010;363:733–42.
Bausewein C, Hartenstein R. Oncology and palliative care. Onkologie. 2000;23:534–7.
Mahler A. The clinical nurse specialist role in developing a geropalliative model of care. Clin Nurse Spec. 2010;24:18–23.
Rumbold B. Public health approaches to palliative care in Australia. In: Sallnow L, Kumar S, Kellehear A, editors. International perspectives on public health and palliative care. London: Routledge; 2012;52-68.
Shaw KL, Clifford C, Thomas K, Meehan H. Improving end-of-life care: a critical review of the Gold Standards Framework in primary care. Palliat Med. 2010;24:317–29.
Australian Government. Guidelines for a palliative approach in residential aged care. Australia: National Health and Medical Research Council; 2006.
Brazil K, Bedard M, Krueger P, Taniguchi A, Kelley ML, McAiney C, et al. Barriers to providing palliative care in long-term care facilities. Can Fam Physician. 2006;52:472–3.
Heyland DK, Dodek P, Rocker G, Groll D, Gafni A, Pichora D, et al. What matters most in end-of-life care: perceptions of seriously ill patients and their family members. Can Med Assoc J. 2006;174:627–33.
Lynn J. Learning to care for people with chronic illness facing the end of life. JAMA. 2000;284:2508.
Murray SA, Boyd K, Sheikh A. Palliative care in chronic illness. BMJ. 2005;330:611–2.
Sachs GA, Shega JW, Cox-Hayley D. Barriers to excellent end-of-life care for patients with dementia. J Gen Intern Med. 2004;19:1057–63.
Badger F, Clifford C, Hewison A, Thomas K. An evaluation of the implementation of a programme to improve end-of-life care in nursing homes. Palliat Med. 2009;23:502–11.
Initiative for a Palliative Approach in Nursing: Evidence and Leadership [www.ipanel.ca]
Stajduhar KI, Tayler C. Taking an “upstream” approach in the care of dying cancer patients: the case for a palliative approach. Can Oncol Nurs J. 2014;24:144–53.
Sandelowski M, Voils CI, Barroso J. Defining and designing mixed research synthesis studies. Res Sch. 2006;13:29.
Dixon-Woods M, Agarwal S, Jones D, Young B, Sutton A. Synthesising qualitative and quantitative evidence: a review of possible methods. J Health Serv Res Policy. 2005;10:45–53.
Gough D, Oliver S, Thomas J. An introduction to systematic reviews. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage; 2012.
Pope C, Mays N, Popay J, Mixed approaches to evidence synthesis. In: Pope C, Mays N, Popay J, editors. Mixed approaches to evidence synthesis. Maidenhead, England: Open University Press, McGraw Hill Education; 2007;95-114.
Reed JG, Baxer PM. Using reference databases. In: Cooper H, Hedges LV, editors. The handbook of research synthesis. 2nd ed. New York, NY: Russell Sage; 2009. p. 73–101.
Daumé III H. Notes on CG and LM-BFGS optimization of logistic regression. 2004. http://www.umiacs.umd.edu/~hal/docs/daume04cgbfgs.pdf. Accessed 9 April 2015.
Berger AL, Pietra VJD, Pietra SAD. A maximum entropy approach to natural language processing. Comput Linguist. 1996;22:39–71.
Manning CD, Schütze H. Foundations of statistical natural language processing. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press; 1999.
Sebastiani F. Machine learning in automated text categorization. ACM Comput Surv. 2002;34:1–47.
Thomas J, Brunton J, Graziosi S. EPPI-Reviewer 4: software for research synthesis. London: Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education; 2010.
Zimmerman K, Rudolph J, Salow M, Skarf LM. Delirium in palliative care patients: focus on pharmacotherapy. Am J Hosp Palliat Med. 2011;28:501–10.
Rocker GM, Sinuff T, Horton R, Hernandez P. Advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: innovative approaches to palliation. J Palliat Med. 2007;10:783–97.
Lynn J. Living long in fragile health: the new demographics shape end of life care. Hastings Cent Rep. 2005;Nov-Dec(Special Report):S14–8.
Lewis C, Stephens B. Heart disease: improving palliative care provision for patients with heart failure. Br J Nurs. 2005;14:563–7.
Janssen DJ, Engelberg RA, Wouters EF, Curtis JR. Advance care planning for patients with COPD: past, present and future. Patient Educ Couns. 2012;86:19–24.
Wittenberg-Lyles E, Goldsmith J, Ragan S. The shift to early palliative care. Clin J Oncol Nurs. 2011;15:304–10.
Buxton KL, Stone RA, Buckingham RJ, Pursey NA, Roberts CM. Current and planned palliative care service provision for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients in 239 UK hospital units: comparison with the Gold Standards Framework. Palliat Med. 2010;24:480–5.
Auer P. Primary care end-of-life planning for older adults with chronic illness. J Nurse Pract. 2008;4:185–91.
Neuharth SE. Implementation of advance care planning in patients with dementia. Duluth, MN: The College of St. Scholastica. 2011.
Hardiman O, Bede P, Oliver D, Obrannagain D. Palliative care in ALS: current international guidelines and initiatives. Amyotroph Lateral Scler. 2011;12 Suppl 1:29.
Schofield P, Carey M, Love A, Nehill C, Wein S. ‘Would you like to talk about your future treatment options?’ Discussing the transition from curative cancer treatment to palliative care. Palliat Med. 2006;20:397–406.
The Gold Standards Framework Centre in End of Life Care. The GSF Prognostic Indicator Guidance. 4th edition. 2011. http://www.goldstandardsframework.org.uk/cd-content/uploads/files/General%20Files/Prognostic%20Indicator%20Guidance%20October%202011.pdf. Accessed 9 April 2015.
Madar H, Gilad G, Elenhoren E, Schwarz L. Dialysis nurses for palliative care. J Ren Care. 2007;33:35–8.
Foster Reinke L. End-of-life care for patients with life-limiting and chronic illnesses: three empirical studies. Seattle, WA: University of Washington. 2008.
Dale J, Petrova M, Munday D, Koistinen-Harris J, Lall R, Thomas K. A national facilitation project to improve primary palliative care: impact of the Gold Standards Framework on process and self-ratings of quality. Qual Saf Health Care. 2009;18:174–80.
Hall S, Goddard C, Stewart F, Higginson IJ. Implementing a quality improvement programme in palliative care in care homes: a qualitative study. BMC Geriatr. 2011;11:31.
King N, Martin N, Bell D, Farrell S. ‘Now nobody falls through the net’: practitioners’ perpectives on the GSF for community palliative care. Palliat Med. 2005;19:619–27.
Thomas K, Noble B. Improving the delivery of palliative care in general practice: an evaluation of the first phase of the GSF. Palliat Med. 2007;21:49–53.
Andrews S, McInerney F, Robinson A. Realizing a palliative approach in dementia care: strategies to facilitate aged care staff engagement in evidence-based practice. Int Psychogeriatr. 2009;21:S64–8.
Pesut B, Sawatzky R, Stajduhar KI, McLeod B, Erbacker L, Chan EKH. Educating nurses for palliative care: a scoping review. J Hosp Palliat Nurs. 2014;16:47–54.
Albinsson L, Strang P. Palliative approach to existential issues and death in end-stage dementia care. J Palliat Care. 2002;18:168–74.
Arcand M, Monette J, Monette M, Sourial N, Fournier L, Gore B, et al. Educating nursing home staff about the progression of dementia and the comfort care option: impact on family satisfaction with end-of-life care. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2009;10:50–5.
Baker JN, Torkildson C, Baillargeon JG, Olney CA, Kane JR. National survey of pediatric residency program directors and residents regarding education in palliative medicine and end-of-life care. J Palliat Med. 2007;10:420–9.
Baughcum AE, Gerhardt CA, Young-Saleme T, Stefanik R, Klopfenstein KJ. Evaluation of a pediatric palliative care educational workshop for oncology fellows. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2007;49:154–9.
Bookbinder M, Blank AE, Arney E, Wollner D, Lesage P, McHugh M, et al. Improving end-of-life care: development and pilot-test of a clinical pathway. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2005;29:529–43.
Bosma H, Apland L, Kazanjian A. Cultural conceptualizations of hospice palliative care: more similarities than differences. Palliat Med. 2010;24:510–22.
Buss MK, Lessen DS, Sullivan AM, Von R, Arnold RM, Block SD. A study of oncology fellows’ training in end-of-life care. J Support Oncol. 2007;5:237–42.
Callahan MF, Breakwell S, Suhayda R. Knowledge of palliative and end-of-life care by student registered nurse anesthetists. AANA J. 2011;79 Suppl 4:S15–20.
Costantini M, Ottonelli S, Canavacci L, Pellegrini F, Beccaro M. The effectiveness of the Liverpool Care Pathway in improving end of life care for dying cancer patients in hospital: a cluster randomised trial. BMC Health Serv Res. 2011;11:13–22.
Curtis JR, Patrick DL, Caldwell ES, Collier AC. Why don’t patients and physicians talk about end-of-life care? Barriers to communication for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and their primary care clinicians. Arch Intern Med. 2000;160:1690–6.
Duffy A, Woodland C. Introducing the Liverpool Care Pathway into nursing homes. Nurs Older People. 2006;18:33–6.
Elkington HM, White PT, Higgs R, Pettinari CJ. A palliative care approach in severe COPD: GPs’ views of discussing prognosis. Thorax. 2000;55:A7.
Grant M, Hanson J. Nursing contributions to the development of palliative care programs. J Hosp Palliat Nurs. 2010;12:319–25.
Grossman S. Educating RNs regarding palliative care in long-term care generates positive outcomes for patients with end-stage chronic illness. J Hosp Palliat Nurs. 2007;9:323–8.
Hahn JE, Cadogan MP. Development and evaluation of a staff training program on palliative care for persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities. J Policy Pract Intellect Disabil. 2011;8:42–52.
Hall P, Hupe D, Scott J. Palliative care education for community-based family physicians: the development of a program, the evaluation, and its consequences. J Palliat Care. 1998;14:69–74.
Hughes PM, Bath PA, Ahmed N, Noble B. What progress has been made towards implementing national guidance on end of life care? A national survey of UK general practices. Palliat Med. 2010;24:68–78.
Lyon ME, Garvie PA, Briggs L, He J, McCarter R, D’Angelo LJ. Development, feasibility, and acceptability of the Family/Adolescent-Centered (FACE) advance care planning intervention for adolescents with HIV. J Palliat Med. 2009;12:363–72.
Mahmood-Yousuf K, Munday D, King N, Dale J. Interprofessional relationships and communication in primary palliative care: impact of the Gold Standards Framework. Br J Adv Pract. 2008;58:256–63.
Mathews K, Finch J. Using the Liverpool Care Pathway in a nursing home. Nurs Times. 2006;102:34–5.
Matuz T, Birbaumer N, Hautzinger M, Kübler A. Coping with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: an integrative view. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010;81:893–8.
Parker D, Grbich C, Brown M, Maddocks I, Willis E, Roe P. A palliative approach or specialist palliative care? What happens in aged care facilities for residents with a noncancer diagnosis? J Palliat Care. 2005;21:80–7.
Phillips J, Davidson PM, Jackson D, Kristjanson L, Daly J, Curran J. Residential aged care: the last frontier for palliative care. J Adv Nurs. 2006;55:416–24.
Pieknik R. Palliative care education in the acute-care setting: part 1. Surg Technol. 2006;38:8–18.
Quinn C. End-of-life care with the heart failure patient in home health: a case study. J Infus Nurs. 2005;28:393–8.
Reuben DB. Medical care for the final years of life: “When you’re 83, it’s not going to be 20 years”. JAMA. 2009;302:2686–94.
Ross MM, MacLean MJ, Cain R, Sellick S, Fisher R. End of life care: the experience of seniors and informal caregivers. Can J Aging. 2002;21:137–46.
Schneider N, Lueckmann SL, Kuehne F, Klindtworth K, Behmann M. Developing targets for public health initiatives to improve palliative care. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:222.
Sullivan AM, Lakoma MD, Billings JA, Peters AS, Block SD. Teaching and learning end-of-life care: evaluation of a faculty development program in palliative care. Acad Med. 2005;80:657–68.
Thompson S, Gentry J. The best of both worlds: combining heart failure and palliative care in interdisciplinary rounds. Heart Lung. 2010;39:363.
Wilson SA, Kovach CR, Stearns SA. Hospice concepts in the care for end-stage dementia. Geriatr Nurs. 1996;17:6–10.
Wowchuk SM. Critical nurse behaviours in the care of dying elderly residents in the personal care home. Winnipeg, Canada: University of Manitoba. 2004.
Main J, Whittle C, Treml J, Woolley J, Main A. The development of an Integrated Care Pathway for all patients with advanced life-limiting illness--The Supportive Care Pathway. J Nurs Manag. 2006;14:521–8.
Munday D, Mahmood K, Dale J, King N. Facilitating good process in primary palliative care: does the Gold Standards Framework enable quality performance? Fam Pract. 2007;24:486–94.
Senior L, Hubbard G. Integrated malignant and nonmalignant palliative care in Scotland. Br J Community Nurs. 2010;15:284–91.
Thompson GN, McClement SE, Daeninck PJ. “Changing lanes”: facilitating the transition from curative to palliative care. J Palliat Care. 2006;22:91–8.
Walshe C, Caress A, Chew-Graham C, Todd C. Implementation and impact of the Gold Standards Framework in community palliative care: a qualitative study of three primary care trusts. Palliat Med. 2008;22:736–43.
Gott M, Ingleton C, Bennett MI, Gardiner C. Transitions to palliative care in acute hospitals in England: qualitative study. Br Med J. 2011;342:d1773.
Jackson K, Mooney C, Campbell D. The development and implementation of the Pathway for Improving the Care of the Dying in general medical wards. Intern Med J. 2009;39:695–9.
Liu L, Yuan C. Construction of palliative care training contents in China: a Delphi study. Cancer Nurs. 2009;32:446–55.
Luker KA, Austin L, Caress A, Hallett CE. The importance of ‘knowing the patient’: community nurses’ constructions of quality in providing palliative care. J Adv Nurs. 2000;31:775–82.
Rogers MS, Barclay SIG, Todd CJ. Developing the Cambridge palliative audit schedule (CAMPAS): a palliative care audit for primary health care teams. Br J Gen Pract. 1998;48:1224–7.
Schwartz CE, Goulet JL, Gorski V, Selwyn PA. Medical residents’ perceptions of end-of-life care training in a large urban teaching hospital. J Palliat Med. 2003;6:37–44.
Von Gunten CF, Von Roenn JH, Gradishar W, Weitzman S. A hospice/palliative medicine rotation for fellows training in hematology-oncology. J Cancer Educ. 1995;10:200–2.
Bolmsjo IA. End-of-life care for old people: a review of the literature. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2008;25:328–38.
Ersek M, Grant MM, Kraybill BM. Enhancing end-of-life care in nursing homes: Palliative Care Educational Resource Team (PERT) program. J Palliat Med. 2005;8:556–66.
Ersek M, Kraybill BM, Hansen NR. Evaluation of a Train-the-Trainer program to enhance hospice and palliative care in nursing homes. J Hosp Palliat Nurs. 2006;8:42–9.
Grbich C, Parish K, Glaetzer K, Hegarty M, Hammond L, McHugh A. Communication and decision making for patients with end stage diseases in an acute care setting. Contemp Nurse. 2006;23:21–37.
Griffiths J, Ewing G, Rogers M, Barclay S, Martin A, McCabe J, et al. Supporting cancer patients with palliative care needs: district nurses’ role perceptions. Cancer Nurs. 2007;30:156–62.
Meraviglia MG, McGuire C, Chesley DA. Nurses’ needs for education on cancer and end-of-life care. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2003;34:122–7.
Petrova M, Dale J, Munday D, Koistinen J, Agarwal S, Lall R. The role and impact of facilitators in primary care: findings from the implementation of the Gold Standards Framework for palliative care. Fam Pract. 2009;27:38–47.
Phillips J, Davidson PM, Willcock S. An insight into the delivery of a palliative approach in residential aged care: the general practitioner perspective. J Appl Gerontol. 2009;28:395–405.
Phillips JL, Davidson PM, Jackson D, Kristjanson LJ. Multi-faceted palliative care intervention: aged care nurses’ and care assistants’ perceptions and experiences. J Adv Nurs. 2008;62:216–27.
Shea J, Grossman S, Wallace M, Lange J. Assessment of advanced practice palliative care nursing competencies in nurse practitioner students: implications for the integration of ELNEC curricular modules. J Nurs Educ. 2010;49:183–9.
Whittaker E, George K, Hasson F, Howard V, McLaughlin D. The palliative care education needs of nursing home staff. Nurse Educ Today. 2006;26:501–10.
Ferrell BR, Virani R, Grant M, Rhome A, Malloy P, Bednash G, et al. Evaluation of the End-of-Life Nursing Education Consortium undergraduate faculty training program. J Palliat Med. 2005;8:107–14.
Field D, Wee B. Preparation for palliative care: teaching about death, dying and bereavement in UK medical schools 2000–2001. Med Educ. 2002;36:561–7.
Lloyd-Williams M, Field D. Are undergraduate nurses taught palliative care during their training? Nurse Educ Today. 2002;22:589–92.
Ogle KS, Mavis B, Rohrer J. Graduating medical students’ competencies and educational experiences in palliative care. J Pain Symptom Manage. 1997;14:280–5.
Wheeler NL, Oyebode JR. Dementia care 1: person centred approaches help to promote effective communication. Nurs Times. 2010;106:18–21.
Grant M, Hanson J, Mullan P, Spolum M, Ferrell B. Disseminating end-of-life education to cancer centers: overview of program and of evaluation. J Cancer Educ. 2007;22:140–8.
Ross DD, O’Mara A, Pickens N, Keay T, Timmel D, Alexander C, et al. Hospice and palliative care education in medical school: a module on the role of the physician in end-of-life care. J Cancer Educ. 1997;12:152–6.
Noble B, Hughes P, Ingleton C, Berg J, Clark D. Impact of the Powys Macmillan GP clinical facilitator project: views of health-care professionals. Int J Palliat Nurs. 2003;9:528–33.