American Cancer Society: Cancer facts & figures 2018. 250 Williams Street, NW, Atlanta, GA h8; 2018.
Bray F, Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Siegel RL, Torre LA, Jemal A. Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA Cancer J Clin. 2018;68(6):394–424.
World Health Organization: Cancer. PRESS RELEASE N° 263.; 2018.
World Bank Group: World Bank country and lending groups: country classification. 2017.[https://datahelpdesk.worldbank.org/knowledgebase/articles/906519-world-bank-country-and-lending-groups]. Accessed 22 Feb 2019.
Tefferi A, Kantarjian H, Rajkumar SV, Baker LH, Abkowitz JL, Adamson JW, Advani RH, Allison J, Antman KH, Bast RC Jr, et al. In support of a patient-driven initiative andpetition to lower thehigh price of cancer drugs. Mayo Clin Proc. 2015;90(8):996–1000.
International Atomic Energy Agency: World cancer day 2019 - boosting capacity for cancer care 2019.
Prager GW, Braga S, Bystricky B, Qvortrup C, Criscitiello C, Esin E, Sonke GS, Martínez GA, Frenel J-S, Karamouzis M, et al. Global cancer control: responding to the growing burden, rising costs and inequalities in access. ESMO Open. 2018;3(2):e000285.
Surbone A, Baider L, Weitzman T, Brames M, Rittenberg C, Johnson J. Psychosocial care for patients and their families is integral to supportive care in cancer: MASCC position statement. Support Care Cancer. 2010;18(2):255–63.
Gysels M, Higginson I, Rajasekaran M, Davies E, Harding R. Improving supportive and palliative care for adults with cancer: research evidence. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence; 2004.
Holland JC. American Cancer Society Award lecture. Psychological care of patients: psycho-oncology's contribution. J Clin Oncol. 2003;21(23 Suppl):253s–65s.
Pérez-Cruz PE, Langer P, Carrasco C, Bonati P, Batic B, Tupper Satt L, Gonzalez Otaiza M. Spiritual pain is associated with decreased quality of life in advanced cancer patients in palliative care: an exploratory study. J Palliat Med. 2019;22(6):663–9.
World Health Organization: Definition of palliative care. Geneva; 2002.; 2017.
World Health Organization. National cancer control programmes: policies and managerial guidelines. 2nd ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2002. p. 84.
Gomez-Batiste X, Stjernsward J, Espinosa J, Martinez-Munoz M, Trelis J, Constante C. How to design and implement palliative care public health programmes: foundation measures. An operational paper by the WHO collaborating Centre for Public Health Palliative Care Programmes at the Catalan Institute of Oncology. BMJ Support Palliat Care. 2013;3(1):18–25.
Stjernsward J, Foley KM, Ferris FD: The public health strategy for palliative care 2007, 33(5):486–493.
Kaye EC, Rubenstein J, Levine D, Baker JN, Dabbs D, Friebert SE. Pediatric palliative care in the community. CA Cancer J Clin. 2015;65(4):316–33.
Centeno-Cortes C, Lynch T, Donea O, Rocafort J, Clark D. EAPC atlas of palliative care in Europe 2013-full edition; 2013.
Morrison RS, Meier DE. Palliative care. N Engl J Med. 2004;350(25):2582–90 +2629.
Zimmermann C, Swami N, Krzyzanowska M, Hannon B, Leighl N, Oza A, Moore M, Rydall A, Rodin G, Tannock I, et al. Early palliative care for patients with advanced cancer: a cluster-randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2014;383(9930):1721–30.
Numico G, Cristofano A, Mozzicafreddo A, Cursio OE, Franco P, Courthod G, Trogu A, Malossi A, Cucchi M, Sirotovà Z, et al. Hospital admission of cancer patients: avoidable practice or necessary care? PLoS One. 2015;10(3):e0120827.
Cassel EJ. The nature of suffering and the goals of medicine. N Engl J Med. 1982;306(11):639–45.
Abu Hamad B, Skaik N, Abu-Odah H. Evaluation of palliative care services provided to cancer patients in the Gaza strip. J US-China Medical Sci. 2016;13(2016):95–107.
Mercadante S, Masedu F, Valenti M, Mercadante A, Aielli F. The characteristics of advanced cancer patients followed at home, but admitted to the hospital for the last days of life. Intern Emerg Med. 2016;11(5):713–8.
Worldwide Palliative Care Alliance, World Health Organization. Global atlas of palliative care at the end of life. London: Worldwide Palliative Care Alliance; 2014.
Morris K. Cancer? In Africa? Lancet Oncol. 2003;4(1):5–5.
Chan M. Cancer in developing countries: facing the challenge. In: Address at the IAEA Scientific Forum, vol. 2010; 2010.
Halahleh K, Gale RP. Cancer care in the Palestinian territories. Lancet Oncol. 2018;19(7):e359–64.
Ddungu H. Palliative care: what approaches are suitable in developing countries? Br J Haematol. 2011;154(6):728–35.
Sachedina A. End-of-life: the Islamic view. Lancet. 2005;366(9487):774–9.
Sarhill N, LeGrand S, Islambouli R, Davis MP, Walsh D. The terminally ill Muslim: death and dying from the Muslim perspective. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2001;18(4):251–5.
Hawley P. Barriers to access to palliative care. Palliative care. 2017;10:1178224216688887.
Abdel-Razeq H, Attiga F, Mansour A. Cancer care in Jordan. Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Ther. 2015;8(2):64–70.
Hannon B, Zimmermann C, Knaul FM, Powell RA, Mwangi-Powell FN, Rodin G. Provision of palliative care in low- and middle-income countries: overcoming obstacles for effective treatment delivery. J Clin Oncol. 2016;34(1):62–8.
Zeinah GF, Al-Kindi SG, Hassan AA. Middle East experience in palliative care. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2013;30(1):94–9.
Basu A, Mittag-Leffler BN, Miller K. Palliative care in low- and medium-resource countries. Cancer J. 2013;19(5):410–3.
World Health Organization: Strengthening of palliative care as a component of comprehensive care throughout the life course; the Sixty-seventh World Health Assembly. 2014.
Saini S, Bhatnagar S. Cancer pain management in developing countries. Indian J Palliat Care. 2016;22(4):373–7.
Knaul FM, Frenk J, Shulman L. Closing the cancer divide: a blueprint to expand access in low and middle income countries. Boston: Harvard Global Equity Initiative; 2011.
Donkor A, Luckett T, Aranda S, Phillips J. Barriers and facilitators to implementation of cancer treatment and palliative care strategies in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review. Int J Public Health. 2018;63(9):1047–57.
Fadhil I, Lyons G, Payne S. Barriers to, and opportunities for, palliative care development in the eastern Mediterranean region. Lancet Oncol. 2017;18(3):e176–84.
Aldridge MD, Hasselaar J, Garralda E, van der Eerden M, Stevenson D, McKendrick K, Centeno C, Meier DE. Education, implementation, and policy barriers to greater integration of palliative care: a literature review. Palliat Med. 2016;30(3):224–39.
McLeroy KR, Bibeau D, Steckler A, Glanz K. An ecological perspective on health promotion programs. Health Educ Q. 1988;15(4):351–77.
Golden SD, Earp JA. Social ecological approaches to individuals and their contexts: twenty years of health education & behavior health promotion interventions. Health Educ Behav. 2012;39(3):364–72.
Ma PHX, Chan ZCY, Loke AY. The socio-ecological model approach to understanding barriers and facilitators to the accessing of health services by sex workers: a systematic review. AIDS Behav. 2017;21(8):2412–38.
Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med. 2009;6(7):e1000097.
Soto-Perez-de-Celis E, Chavarri-Guerra Y, Pastrana T, Ruiz-Mendoza R, Bukowski A, Goss PE. End-of-life care in Latin America. J Glob Oncol. 2017;3(3):261–70.
Ali Z. Kenya hospices and palliative care association: integrating palliative care in public hospitals in Kenya. Ecancermedicalscience. 2016;10:655.
Rochmawati E, Wiechula R, Cameron K. Current status of palliative care services in Indonesia: a literature review. Int Nurs Rev. 2016;63(2):180–90.
Silbermann M, Arnaout M, Daher M, Nestoros S, Pitsillides B, Charalambous H, Gultekin M, Fahmi R, Mostafa KA, Khleif AD, et al. Palliative cancer care in middle eastern countries: accomplishments and challenges. Ann Oncol. 2012;23(Suppl 3):15–28.
Elcigil A: The current status of palliative care in Turkey: a nurse's perspective. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2011, 33 Suppl 1(SUPPL. 1):S70–S72.
Shawawra M, Khleif AD. Palliative care situation in Palestinian authority. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2011;33(Suppl 1):S64–7.
Bingley A, Clark D. A comparative review of palliative care development in six countries represented by the Middle East Cancer consortium (MECC). J Pain Symptom Manag. 2009;37(3):287–96.
McDermott E, Selman L, Wright M, Clark D. Hospice and palliative care development in India: a multimethod review of services and experiences. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2008;35(6):583–93.
La Torre G, Backhaus I, Mannocci A: Rating for narrative reviews: concept and development of the International Narrative Systematic Assessment tool. 2015. [https://sensesandsciences.com/index.php/Senses/article/view/52]. Accessed 2 Feb. 2019.
Shea BJ, Reeves BC, Wells G, Thuku M, Hamel C, Moran J, Moher D, Tugwell P, Welch V, Kristjansson E, et al. AMSTAR 2: a critical appraisal tool for systematic reviews that include randomised or non-randomised studies of healthcare interventions, or both. BMJ. 2017;358:j4008.
LeBlanc TW, Roeland EJ, El-Jawahri A. Early palliative care for patients with hematologic malignancies: is it really so difficult to achieve? Curr Hematol Malig Rep. 2017;12(4):300–8.
Dalgaard KM, Bergenholtz H, Nielsen ME, Timm H. Early integration of palliative care in hospitals: a systematic review on methods, barriers, and outcome. Palliat Support Care. 2014;12(6):495–513.
Davies P, Prince-Paul M. Palliative Care in the Outpatient Cancer Center: current trends. J Hosp Palliat Nurs. 2012;14(8):506–15.
Shalev A, Phongtankuel V, Kozlov E, Shen MJ, Adelman RD, Reid MC. Awareness and misperceptions of hospice and palliative care: a population-based survey study. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2018;35(3):431–9.
Lane T, Ramadurai D, Simonetti J. Public awareness and perceptions of palliative and comfort care. Am J Med. 2019;132(2):129–31.
Ryan T, Ingleton C. Most hospices and palliative care programmes in the USA serve people with dementia; lack of awareness, need for respite care and reimbursement policies are the main barriers to providing this care. Evid Based Nurs. 2011;14(2):40–1.
Torke AM, Holtz LR, Hui S, Castelluccio P, Connor S, Eaton MA, Sachs GA. Palliative care for patients with dementia: a national survey. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58(11):2114–21.
Cherny N. Stigma associated with “palliative care” getting around it or getting over it. Cancer. 2009;115(9):1808–12.
World Health Organization. Strengthening of palliative care as a component of integrated treatment within the continuum of care. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2014;28(2):130–4.
Zelko E, Selic P, Malacic S. Palliative care: a cross sectional study focused on different capacity building programmes evaluated through self-rated knowledge and efficiency in family medicine tutors. Materia socio-medica. 2017;29(2):114.
Fischer SM, Gozansky WS, Kutner JS, Chomiak A, Kramer A. Palliative care education: an intervention to improve medical residents' knowledge and attitudes. J Palliat Med. 2003;6(3):391–9.
Dalberg T, McNinch NL, Friebert S. Perceptions of barriers and facilitators to early integration of pediatric palliative care: a national survey of pediatric oncology providers. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2018;65(6):e26996.
Stjernswärd J, Foley KM, Ferris FD. The public health strategy for palliative care. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2007;33(5):486–93.
Kamal AH, Maguire JM, Meier DE. Evolving the palliative care workforce to provide responsive, serious illness care. Ann Intern Med. 2015;163(8):637–8.
Canadian Medical Association: Palliative care: Canadian medical association's national call to action—examples of innovative care delivery models, training opportunities and physician leaders in palliative care. 2015; 2015.
Lupu D. American Academy of hospice and palliative medicine workforce task force: estimate of current hospice and palliative medicine physician workforce shortage. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2010;40(6):899–911.
Centeno C, Bolognesi D, Biasco G. Comparative analysis of specialization in palliative medicine processes within the World Health Organization European region. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2015;49(5):861–70.
Carrasco JM, Lynch TJ, Garralda E, Woitha K, Elsner F, Filbet M, Ellershaw JE, Clark D, Centeno C. Palliative care medical education in European universities: a descriptive study and numerical scoring system proposal for assessing educational development. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2015;50(4):516–23 e512.
Frick KD, Carlson MC, Glass TA, McGill S, Rebok GW, Simpson C, Fried LP. Modeled cost-effectiveness of the experience corps Baltimore based on a pilot randomized trial. J Urban Health. 2004;81(1):106–17.
International Labour Organization: Manual on the measurement of volunteer work; 2011.
Sales VL, Ashraf MS, Lella LK, Huang J, Bhumireddy G, Lefkowitz L, Feinstein M, Kamal M, Caesar R, Cusick E, et al. Utilization of trained volunteers decreases 30-day readmissions for heart failure. J Card Fail. 2013;19(12):842–50.
Knaul FM, Farmer P, Krakauer EL, De Lima L, Bhadelia A, Kwete XJ, Arreola-Ornelas H, Gómez-Dantés O, Rodriguez NM, Alleyne GA. Alleviating the access abyss in palliative care and pain relief—an imperative of universal health coverage: the lancet commission report. Lancet. 2018;391(10128):1391–454.
Steedman MR, Hughes-Hallett T, Knaul FM, Knuth A, Shamieh O, Darzi A. Innovation can improve and expand aspects of end-of-life care in low- and middle-income countries. Health Aff. 2014;33(9):1612–9.
Krakauer EL, Wenk R, Buitrago R, Jenkins P, Scholten W. Opioid inaccessibility and its human consequences: reports from the field. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2010;24(3):239–43.
Jemal A, Center MM, DeSantis C, Ward EM. Global patterns of cancer incidence and mortality rates and trends. Cancer Epidemiology Prevention Biomarkers. 2010;19(8):1893–907.
Bagçivan G, Tosun N, Kömürcü S, Özet A, NJJoCO A. Analysis of the patient-related barriers in cancer pain anagement in Turkish patients. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2009;27(15_suppl):e20699.
Kim YC, Ahn JS, Calimag MMP, Chao TC, Ho KY, Tho LM, Xia ZJ, Ward L, Moon H. Current practices in cancer pain management in Asia: a survey of patients and physicians across 10 countries. J Cancer medicine. 2015;4(8):1196–204.
Peker L, Celebi N, Canbay O, Sahin A, Cakir B, Uzun S, Aypar U. Doctors' opinions, knowledge and attitudes towards cancer pain management in a university hospital. J Turkish Soc Algology. 2008;20(2):20–30.
De Lima L, Pastrana T, Radbruch L, Wenk R. Cross-sectional pilot study to monitor the availability, dispensed prices, and affordability of opioids around the globe. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2014;48(4):649–59 e641.
Bond M. Availability and accessibility of opioids in developing countries, with special reference to Eastern Europe. Eur Oncology. 2009;5(1):17–8.
Cherny NI, Cleary J, Scholten W, Radbruch L, Torode J. The Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI) project to evaluate the availability and accessibility of opioids for the management of cancer pain in Africa, Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and the Middle East: introduction and methodology. Ann Oncol. 2013;24(Suppl 11):xi7–13.
Cherny NI, Baselga J, de Conno F, Radbruch L. Formulary availability and regulatory barriers to accessibility of opioids for cancer pain in Europe: a report from the ESMO/EAPC opioid policy initiative. Ann Oncol. 2010;21(3):615–26.
Husain SA, Brown MS, Maurer MA. Do national drug control laws ensure the availability of opioids for medical and scientific purposes? Bull World Health Organ. 2014;92(2):108–16.
Cleary J, Radbruch L, Torode J, Cherny NI. Next steps in access and availability of opioids for the treatment of cancer pain: reaching the tipping point? Ann Oncol. 2013;24(Suppl 11):xi60–4.
Dalal S, Bruera E. Access to opioid analgesics and pain relief for patients with cancer. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2013;10(2):108.
Brennan F. Palliative care as an international human right. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2007;33(5):494–9.
Radbruch L, Payne S, de Lima L, Lohmann D. The Lisbon challenge: acknowledging palliative care as a human right. J Palliat Med. 2013;16(3):301–4.
World Health Organization. WHO model lists of essential medicines, vol. 2019; 2019.
Manjiani D, Paul DB, Kunnumpurath S, Kaye AD, Vadivelu N. Availability and utilization of opioids for pain management: global issues. Ochsner J. 2014;14(2):208–15.
Cleary J, Powell RA, Munene G, Mwangi-Powell FN, Luyirika E, Kiyange F, Merriman A, Scholten W, Radbruch L, Torode J, et al. Formulary availability and regulatory barriers to accessibility of opioids for cancer pain in Africa: a report from the Global Opioid Policy Initiative (GOPI). Ann Oncol. 2013;24(Suppl 11):xi14–23.
Reville B, Foxwell AM. The global state of palliative care—progress and challenges in cancer care. Ann Palliative Med. 2014;3(3):129–38.
Bosnjak S, Maurer MA, Ryan KM, Leon MX, Madiye G. Improving the availability and accessibility of opioids for the treatment of pain: the international pain policy fellowship. Support Care Cancer. 2011;19(8):1239–47.
Moore E: How can we improve access to healthcare in emerging countries? 2015.[https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2015/11/how-can-we-improve-access-to-healthcare-in-emerging-countries/]. Accessed 22 Mar. 2019.
World Health Organization: Why palliative care is an essential function of primary health care; 2018.
Recoche K, Lee S, O'Connor M, Ross-Heazlewood M, Doherty V, Hood K. Building palliative care capacity in rural health: a collaborative approach. Aust Nurs Midwifery J. 2014;21(10):38.
McCormick E, Chai E, Meier DE. Integrating palliative care into primary care. Mt Sinai J Med. 2012;79(5):579–85.
World Health Organization: Innovative care for chronic conditions: Building blocks for actions: global report. 2002. 2016.
Nilsen P. Making sense of implementation theories, models and frameworks. Implement Sci. 2015;10(1):53.
Exworthy M. Policy to tackle the social determinants of health: using conceptual models to understand the policy process. Health Policy Plan. 2008;23(5):318–27.
Bate P, Robert GJBQ. Safety: experience-based design: from redesigning the system around the patient to co-designing services with the patient. Qual Saf Health Care. 2006;15(5):307–10.
Lynch T, Clark D, Centeno C, Rocafort J, de Lima L, Filbet M, Hegedus K, Belle O, Giordano A, Guillen F, et al. Barriers to the development of palliative care in Western Europe. Palliat Med. 2010;24(8):812–9.
Bhadra K, Manir KS, Adhikary A, Kumar G, Manna A, Sarkar SK. Awareness of palliative care among doctors of various departments in all four teaching medical colleges in a metropolitan city in eastern India: a survey. J Educ Health Promot. 2015;4:20.
McIlfatrick S, Hasson F, McLaughlin D, Johnston G, Roulston A, Rutherford L, Noble H, Kelly S, Craig A, Kernohan WG. Public awareness and attitudes toward palliative care in Northern Ireland. BMC Palliative Care. 2013;12(1):34.
Westerlund C, Tishelman C, Benkel I, Fürst CJ, Molander U, Rasmussen BH, Sauter S, Lindqvist O. Public awareness of palliative care in Sweden. Scand J Public Health. 2018;46(4):478–87.
Alkhudairi H. General public awareness, knowledge, and beliefs toward palliative care in a Saudi population. J Nature Sci Med. 2019;2(1):48–53.
Seya MJ, Gelders SF, Achara OU, Milani B, Scholten WK. A first comparison between the consumption of and the need for opioid analgesics at country, regional, and global levels. J Pain Palliat Care Pharmacother. 2011;25(1):6–18.
Duthey B, Scholten W. Adequacy of opioid analgesic consumption at country, global, and regional levels in 2010, its relationship with development level, and changes compared with 2006. J Pain Symptom Manag. 2014;47(2):283–97.
Brock D, Abu-Rish E, Chiu C-R, Hammer D, Wilson S, Vorvick L, Blondon K, Schaad D, Liner D, Zierler B. Interprofessional education in team communication: working together to improve patient safety. Postgrad Med J. 2013;22(5):414–23.
Fallowfield L, Jenkins V. Effective communication skills are the key to good cancer care. Eur J Cancer. 1999;35(11):1592–7.
Perloff RM, Bonder B, Ray GB, Ray EB, Siminoff LA. Doctor-patient communication, cultural competence, and minority health: theoretical and empirical perspectives. Am Behav Sci. 2006;49(6):835–52.
Helfrich CD, Li YF, Sharp ND, Sales AE. Organizational readiness to change assessment (ORCA): development of an instrument based on the promoting action on research in health services (PARIHS) framework. Implement Sci. 2009;4(1):38.